A bioelectronic nose, an intelligent chemical sensor array system coupled with bio-receptors to identify gases and vapours, resembles mammalian olfaction by which many vertebrates can sniff out volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sensitively and specifically even at very low concentrations. Olfaction is undertaken by the olfactory system, which detects odorants that are inhaled through the nose where they come into contact with the olfactory epithelium containing olfactory receptors (ORs). Because of its ability to mimic biological olfaction, a bio-inspired electronic nose has been used to detect a variety of important compounds in complex environments. Recently, biosensor systems have been introduced that combine nanoelectronic technology and olfactory receptors themselves as a source of capturing elements for biosensing. In this article, we will present the latest advances in bioelectronic nose technology mimicking the olfactory system, including biological recognition elements, emerging detection systems, production and immobilization of sensing elements on sensor surface, and applications of bioelectronic noses. Furthermore, current research trends and future challenges in this field will be discussed.
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