Next Article in Journal
Distributed Sensor Architecture for Intelligent Control that Supports Quality of Control and Quality of Service
Next Article in Special Issue
The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models
Previous Article in Journal
Development of a Passive Liquid Valve (PLV) Utilizing a Pressure Equilibrium Phenomenon on the Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform
Previous Article in Special Issue
Efficient Evaluation of Wireless Real-Time Control Networks
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Symphony: A Framework for Accurate and Holistic WSN Simulation

Computer Science Department, Stanford University, 353 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering , Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 971-87, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Albert M. K. Cheng
Sensors 2015, 15(3), 4677-4699;
Received: 5 June 2014 / Revised: 4 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 February 2015 / Published: 25 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber-Physical Systems)
PDF [1737 KB, uploaded 25 February 2015]


Research on wireless sensor networks has progressed rapidly over the last decade, and these technologies have been widely adopted for both industrial and domestic uses. Several operating systems have been developed, along with a multitude of network protocols for all layers of the communication stack. Industrial Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) systems must satisfy strict criteria and are typically more complex and larger in scale than domestic systems. Together with the non-deterministic behavior of network hardware in real settings, this greatly complicates the debugging and testing of WSN functionality. To facilitate the testing, validation, and debugging of large-scale WSN systems, we have developed a simulation framework that accurately reproduces the processes that occur inside real equipment, including both hardware- and software-induced delays. The core of the framework consists of a virtualized operating system and an emulated hardware platform that is integrated with the general purpose network simulator ns-3. Our framework enables the user to adjust the real code base as would be done in real deployments and also to test the boundary effects of different hardware components on the performance of distributed applications and protocols. Additionally we have developed a clock emulator with several different skew models and a component that handles sensory data feeds. The new framework should substantially shorten WSN application development cycles. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; emulation; sensors; simulations wireless sensor networks; emulation; sensors; simulations
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Riliskis, L.; Osipov, E. Symphony: A Framework for Accurate and Holistic WSN Simulation. Sensors 2015, 15, 4677-4699.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top