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A High Performance LIA-Based Interface for Battery Powered Sensing Devices

Group of Electronic Design, Aragon Institute for Engineering Research, I3A, Facultad de Ciencias, Pedro Cerbuna 12, Zaragoza 50009, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Albert Cheng
Sensors 2015, 15(10), 25260-25276;
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 22 September 2015 / Accepted: 25 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber-Physical Systems)
PDF [1306 KB, uploaded 15 October 2015]


This paper proposes a battery-compatible electronic interface based on a general purpose lock-in amplifier (LIA) capable of recovering input signals up to the MHz range. The core is a novel ASIC fabricated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology, which contains a dual-phase analog lock-in amplifier consisting of carefully designed building blocks to allow configurability over a wide frequency range while maintaining low power consumption. It operates using square input signals. Hence, for battery-operated microcontrolled systems, where square reference and exciting signals can be generated by the embedded microcontroller, the system benefits from intrinsic advantages such as simplicity, versatility and reduction in power and size. Experimental results confirm the signal recovery capability with signal-to-noise power ratios down to −39 dB with relative errors below 0.07% up to 1 MHz. Furthermore, the system has been successfully tested measuring the response of a microcantilever-based resonant sensor, achieving similar results with better power-bandwidth trade-off compared to other LIAs based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and commercial LIA equipment. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMOS analog integrated circuits; portable lock-in amplifiers; low-voltage low power; gas sensing CMOS analog integrated circuits; portable lock-in amplifiers; low-voltage low power; gas sensing

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Romeo, D.; Valero, M.R.; Medrano, N.; Calvo, B.; Celma, S. A High Performance LIA-Based Interface for Battery Powered Sensing Devices. Sensors 2015, 15, 25260-25276.

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