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Article

Factors Influencing the Distribution of Invasive Hybrid (Myriophyllum Spicatum x M. Sibiricum) Watermilfoil and Parental Taxa in Minnesota

1
Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
2
Department of Plant Science and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12030120
Received: 1 March 2020 / Revised: 20 March 2020 / Accepted: 21 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology of Invasive Aquatic Plants)
Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) hybridizes with the native northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum Kom.), which raises new issues regarding management strategies to control infestations. To determine the distribution of hybrid (and coincidentally Eurasian and northern) watermilfoil in Minnesota, we sampled lakes across the state during 2017–2018 for watermilfoil. A total of 62 lakes were sampled, spanning a range of sizes and duration of invasion. Forty-three lakes contained Eurasian, 28 contained hybrid and 21 contained northern watermilfoil. Eurasian watermilfoil populations were widespread throughout the state. Hybrid populations were more commonly found in lakes in the seven county Twin Cities Metro and northern watermilfoil populations were more commonly found in lakes outside of the Metro area. We found no evidence that hybrid watermilfoil occurred in lakes environmentally different than those with Eurasian and northern watermilfoil, suggesting that hybrid watermilfoil is not associated with a unique niche. Hybrid watermilfoil presence was significantly associated with the Metro area, which may likely be due to spatial and temporal factors associated with hybrid formation and spread. Hybrid watermilfoil presence was also significantly associated with lakes that had more parking spaces and older infestations, but this relationship was not significant when the effect of region was considered. Hybrid watermilfoil populations were the result of both in situ hybridization and clonal spread and continued assessment is needed to determine if particularly invasive or herbicide-resistant genotypes develop. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological invasions; invasive plants; Myriophyllum spicatum; Myriophyllum sibiricum; hybridization; population genetics biological invasions; invasive plants; Myriophyllum spicatum; Myriophyllum sibiricum; hybridization; population genetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eltawely, J.A.; Newman, R.M.; Thum, R.A. Factors Influencing the Distribution of Invasive Hybrid (Myriophyllum Spicatum x M. Sibiricum) Watermilfoil and Parental Taxa in Minnesota. Diversity 2020, 12, 120. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12030120

AMA Style

Eltawely JA, Newman RM, Thum RA. Factors Influencing the Distribution of Invasive Hybrid (Myriophyllum Spicatum x M. Sibiricum) Watermilfoil and Parental Taxa in Minnesota. Diversity. 2020; 12(3):120. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12030120

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eltawely, Jasmine A., Raymond M. Newman, and Ryan A. Thum. 2020. "Factors Influencing the Distribution of Invasive Hybrid (Myriophyllum Spicatum x M. Sibiricum) Watermilfoil and Parental Taxa in Minnesota" Diversity 12, no. 3: 120. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12030120

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