Next Article in Journal
Johnston Atoll: Reef Fish Hybrid Zone between Hawaii and the Equatorial Pacific
Next Article in Special Issue
Factors Influencing the Distribution of Invasive Hybrid (Myriophyllum Spicatum x M. Sibiricum) Watermilfoil and Parental Taxa in Minnesota
Previous Article in Journal
Relative Efficiency of Pitfall Trapping vs. Nocturnal Hand Collecting in Assessing Soil-Dwelling Spider Diversity along A Structural Gradient of Neotropical Habitats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Niche Complementarity and Resistance to Grazing Promote the Invasion Success of Sargassum horneri in North America
Open AccessArticle

Effects of Invasive Watermilfoil on Primary Production in Littoral Zones of North-Temperate Lakes

Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12020082
Received: 15 December 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology of Invasive Aquatic Plants)
Species invasions are changing aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Submerged aquatic macrophytes control lake ecosystem processes through their direct and indirect interactions with other primary producers, but how these interactions may be altered by macrophyte species invasions in temperate lakes is poorly understood. We addressed whether invasive watermilfoil (IWM) altered standing crops and gross primary production (GPP) of other littoral primary producers (macrophytes, phytoplankton, attached algae, and periphyton) in littoral zones of six Michigan lakes through a paired-plot comparison study of sites with IWM (standardized abundance 7–56%) compared to those with little or no IWM (standardized abundance 0–2%). We found that primary producer standing crops and the GPP of epiphytes, phytoplankton, and benthic periphyton were variable among lakes and not significantly different between paired study plots. Macrophyte standing crops predicted rates of benthic periphyton GPP, and standing crops of all other primary producers across all study plots. Overall, our results suggest that the effects of IWM on other primary producers in littoral zones may be lake-specific, and are likely dependent on the density of IWM, or whether it is functionally similar to other native species that it replaces or co-exists with. Moreover, in lakes where IWM is established but does not dominate macrophyte assemblages, the effects on littoral zone productivity may be minimal. Instead, overall macrophyte biomass is the primary factor controlling the rates of production and biomass of the other littoral zone primary producers, as has long been understood and observed in lake ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: gross primary production; ecosystem metabolism; Myriophyllum; macrophyte; epiphyte; benthic periphyton; phytoplankton; metabolism modeling gross primary production; ecosystem metabolism; Myriophyllum; macrophyte; epiphyte; benthic periphyton; phytoplankton; metabolism modeling
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Van Goethem, R.R.; Huckins, C.J.; Marcarelli, A.M. Effects of Invasive Watermilfoil on Primary Production in Littoral Zones of North-Temperate Lakes. Diversity 2020, 12, 82.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop