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Article

Sp1 Plays a Key Role in Vasculogenic Mimicry of Human Prostate Cancer Cells

by 1 and 1,2,*
1
Department of Science in Korean Medicine, Graduate School, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
2
Department of Cancer Preventive Material Development, Graduate School, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aamir Ahmad
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031321
Received: 25 November 2021 / Revised: 20 January 2022 / Accepted: 20 January 2022 / Published: 25 January 2022
Sp1 transcription factor regulates genes involved in various phenomena of tumor progression. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is the alternative neovascularization by aggressive tumor cells. However, there is no evidence of the relationship between Sp1 and VM. This study investigated whether and how Sp1 plays a crucial role in the process of VM in human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines, PC-3 and DU145. A cell viability assay and three-dimensional culture VM tube formation assay were performed. Protein and mRNA expression levels were detected by Western blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The nuclear twist expression was observed by immunofluorescence assay. A co-immunoprecipitation assay was performed. Mithramycin A (MiA) and Sp1 siRNA significantly decreased serum-induced VM, whereas Sp1 overexpression caused a significant induction of VM. Serum-upregulated vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) protein and mRNA expression levels were decreased after MiA treatment or Sp1 silencing. The protein expression and the nuclear localization of twist were increased by serum, which was effectively inhibited after MiA treatment or Sp1 silencing. The interaction between Sp1 and twist was reduced by MiA. On the contrary, Sp1 overexpression enhanced VE-cadherin and twist expressions. Serum phosphorylated AKT and raised matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and laminin subunit 5 gamma-2 (LAMC2) expressions. MiA or Sp1 silencing impaired these effects. However, Sp1 overexpression upregulated phosphor-AKT, MMP-2 and LAMC2 expressions. Serum-upregulated Sp1 was significantly reduced by an AKT inhibitor, wortmannin. These results demonstrate that Sp1 mediates VM formation through interacting with the twist/VE-cadherin/AKT pathway in human PCa cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: vasculogenic mimicry; Sp1; human prostate cancer cells; twist; VE-cadherin; AKT vasculogenic mimicry; Sp1; human prostate cancer cells; twist; VE-cadherin; AKT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, D.-S.; Lee, E.-O. Sp1 Plays a Key Role in Vasculogenic Mimicry of Human Prostate Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031321

AMA Style

Han D-S, Lee E-O. Sp1 Plays a Key Role in Vasculogenic Mimicry of Human Prostate Cancer Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(3):1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031321

Chicago/Turabian Style

Han, Deok-Soo, and Eun-Ok Lee. 2022. "Sp1 Plays a Key Role in Vasculogenic Mimicry of Human Prostate Cancer Cells" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 3: 1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031321

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