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Article

Emodin Sensitizes Cervical Cancer Cells to Vinblastine by Inducing Apoptosis and Mitotic Death

Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Biology, The Jan Kochanowski University, Uniwersytecka 7, 25-406 Kielce, Poland
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco Estevez
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158510
Received: 28 June 2022 / Revised: 28 July 2022 / Accepted: 28 July 2022 / Published: 31 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Apoptosis)
In recent years, studies on the effects of combining novel plant compounds with cytostatics used in cancer therapy have received considerable attention. Since emodin sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapeutics, we evaluated changes in cervical cancer cells after its combination with the antimitotic drug vinblastine. Cellular changes were demonstrated using optical, fluorescence, confocal and electron microscopy. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. The level of apoptosis, caspase 3/7, Bcl-2 protein, ROS, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cell cycle and degree of DNA damage were analyzed by flow cytometry. The microscopic image showed indicators characteristic for emodin- and vinblastine-induced mitotic catastrophe, i.e., multinucleated cells, giant cells, cells with micronuclei, and abnormal mitotic figures. These compounds also increased blocking of cells in the G2/M phase, and the generated ROS induced swelling and mitochondrial damage. This translated into the growth of apoptotic cells with active caspase 3/7 and inactivation of Bcl-2 protein and active ATM kinase. Emodin potentiated the cytotoxic effect of vinblastine, increasing oxidative stress, mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis. Preliminary studies show that the combined action of both compounds, may constitute an interesting form of anticancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: emodin; vinblastine; mitotic death; apoptosis; oxidative stress emodin; vinblastine; mitotic death; apoptosis; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Trybus, W.; Trybus, E.; Król, T. Emodin Sensitizes Cervical Cancer Cells to Vinblastine by Inducing Apoptosis and Mitotic Death. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 8510. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158510

AMA Style

Trybus W, Trybus E, Król T. Emodin Sensitizes Cervical Cancer Cells to Vinblastine by Inducing Apoptosis and Mitotic Death. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(15):8510. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158510

Chicago/Turabian Style

Trybus, Wojciech, Ewa Trybus, and Teodora Król. 2022. "Emodin Sensitizes Cervical Cancer Cells to Vinblastine by Inducing Apoptosis and Mitotic Death" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 15: 8510. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158510

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