Lung cancer is a complex disease associated with gene mutations, particularly mutations of Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog (KRAS
) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR
). Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are the two major types of lung cancer. The former includes most lung cancers (85%) and are commonly associated with EGFR mutations. Several EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), including erlotinib, gefitinib, and osimertinib, are effective therapeutic agents in EGFR
-mutated NSCLC. However, their effectiveness is limited by the development (acquired) or presence of intrinsic drug resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key gene regulators that play a profound role in the development and outcomes for NSCLC via their role as oncogenes or oncosuppressors. The regulatory role of miRNA-dependent EGFR
crosstalk depends on EGFR
signaling pathway, including Rat Sarcoma/Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK1/2), Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT), Nuclear Factor Kappa-Light-Chain-Enhancer of Activated B Cells (NF-kB), phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT), Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2). Dysregulated expression of miRNAs affects sensitivity to treatment with EGFR-TKIs. Thus, abnormalities in miRNA-dependent EGFR crosstalk can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as therapeutic targets in NSCLC. In this review, we present an overview of miRNA-dependent EGFR expression regulation, which modulates the behavior and progression of NSCLC.
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