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Review

How Are Epigenetic Modifications Related to Cardiovascular Disease in Older Adults?

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Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8158388994, Iran
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Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, and Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
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Interventional Cardiology Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8158388994, Iran
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School of Social Sciences and Health, Nutrition Course, Pontifical Catholic University of Goias, Goiânia 74605-010, Brazil
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Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MI 02111, USA
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Faculty of Medicine, School of Population and Public Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
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Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, Institute of Epidemiology & Health Care, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia 74690-900, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Cristina Vinci and Angela Raucci
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189949
Received: 17 August 2021 / Revised: 8 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
The rate of aging has increased globally during recent decades and has led to a rising burden of age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). At the molecular level, epigenetic modifications have been shown recently to alter gene expression during the life course and impair cellular function. In this regard, several CVD risk factors, such as lifestyle and environmental factors, have emerged as key factors in epigenetic modifications within the cardiovascular system. In this study, we attempted to summarized recent evidence related to epigenetic modification, inflammation response, and CVD in older adults as well as the effect of lifestyle modification as a preventive strategy in this age group. Recent evidence showed that lifestyle and environmental factors may affect epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and miRNA expression. Several substances or nutrients such as selenium, magnesium, curcumin, and caffeine (present in coffee and some teas) could regulate epigenetics. Similarly, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, air pollutants, psychological stress, and shift working are well-known modifiers of epigenetic patterns. Understanding the exact ways that lifestyle and environmental factors could affect the expression of genes could help to influence the time of incidence and severity of aging-associated diseases. This review highlighted that a healthy lifestyle throughout the life course, such as a healthy diet rich in fibers, vitamins, and essential elements, and specific fatty acids, adequate physical activity and sleep, smoking cessation, and stress control, could be useful tools in preventing epigenetic changes that lead to impaired cardiovascular function. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetics; older adults; cardiovascular disease; aging; lifestyle; environment; physical inactivity; diet; nutrients; caffeine; alcohol consumption epigenetics; older adults; cardiovascular disease; aging; lifestyle; environment; physical inactivity; diet; nutrients; caffeine; alcohol consumption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gharipour, M.; Mani, A.; Amini Baghbahadorani, M.; de Souza Cardoso, C.K.; Jahanfar, S.; Sarrafzadegan, N.; de Oliveira, C.; Silveira, E.A. How Are Epigenetic Modifications Related to Cardiovascular Disease in Older Adults? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9949. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189949

AMA Style

Gharipour M, Mani A, Amini Baghbahadorani M, de Souza Cardoso CK, Jahanfar S, Sarrafzadegan N, de Oliveira C, Silveira EA. How Are Epigenetic Modifications Related to Cardiovascular Disease in Older Adults? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(18):9949. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189949

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gharipour, Mojgan, Arya Mani, Mona Amini Baghbahadorani, Camila K. de Souza Cardoso, Shayesteh Jahanfar, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Cesar de Oliveira, and Erika A. Silveira 2021. "How Are Epigenetic Modifications Related to Cardiovascular Disease in Older Adults?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 18: 9949. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189949

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