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Regenerative Rehabilitation for Stroke Recovery by Inducing Synergistic Effects of Cell Therapy and Neurorehabilitation on Motor Function: A Narrative Review of Pre-Clinical Studies

1
Department of Motor Function Analysis, Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan
2
Cognitive Motor Neuroscience, Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan
3
Department of Development and Rehabilitation of Motor Function, Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093135
Received: 24 March 2020 / Revised: 23 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 29 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mechanistic Link between Cell Therapy and Neurorehabilitation)
Neurological diseases severely affect the quality of life of patients. Although existing treatments including rehabilitative therapy aim to facilitate the recovery of motor function, achieving complete recovery remains a challenge. In recent years, regenerative therapy has been considered as a potential candidate that could yield complete functional recovery. However, to achieve desirable results, integration of transplanted cells into neural networks and generation of appropriate microenvironments are essential. Furthermore, considering the nascent state of research in this area, we must understand certain aspects about regenerative therapy, including specific effects, nature of interaction when administered in combination with rehabilitative therapy (regenerative rehabilitation), and optimal conditions. Herein, we review the current status of research in the field of regenerative therapy, discuss the findings that could hold the key to resolving the challenges associated with regenerative rehabilitation, and outline the challenges to be addressed with future studies. The current state of research emphasizes the importance of determining the independent effect of regenerative and rehabilitative therapies before exploring their combined effects. Furthermore, the current review highlights the progression in the treatment perspective from a state of compensation of lost function to that of a possibility of complete functional recovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: rehabilitation; regenerative medicine; stroke; cell therapy; motor function; brain stimulation; epidural cortical stimulation; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; transcranial direct current stimulation rehabilitation; regenerative medicine; stroke; cell therapy; motor function; brain stimulation; epidural cortical stimulation; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; transcranial direct current stimulation
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Ito, A.; Kubo, N.; Liang, N.; Aoyama, T.; Kuroki, H. Regenerative Rehabilitation for Stroke Recovery by Inducing Synergistic Effects of Cell Therapy and Neurorehabilitation on Motor Function: A Narrative Review of Pre-Clinical Studies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3135.

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