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Review

The Role of Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Uveal Melanoma

1
Department of Dermatology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich Alexander University, Ulmenweg 18, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
2
Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Frauenlobstr. 9-11, 80337 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030879
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2020 / Accepted: 27 January 2020 / Published: 29 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy Using Checkpoint Inhibitors: Future Directions)
Uveal melanoma (UM) represents the most common intraocular malignancy in adults and accounts for about 5% of all melanomas. Primary disease can be effectively controlled by several local therapy options, but UM has a high potential for metastatic spread, especially to the liver. Despite its clinical and genetic heterogeneity, therapy of metastatic UM has largely been adopted from cutaneous melanoma (CM) with discouraging results until now. The introduction of antibodies targeting CTLA-4 and PD-1 for immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has revolutionized the field of cancer therapy and has achieved pioneering results in metastatic CM. Thus, expectations were high that patients with metastatic UM would also benefit from these new therapy options. This review provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview on the role of ICB in UM. We give a summary of UM biology, its clinical features, and how it differs from CM. The results of several studies that have been investigating ICB in metastatic UM are presented. We discuss possible reasons for the lack of efficacy of ICB in UM compared to CM, highlight the pitfalls of ICB in this cancer entity, and explain why other immune-modulating therapies could still be an option for future UM therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: uveal melanoma; ocular melanoma; immune checkpoint blockade; CTLA-4; cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen; ipilimumab; PD-1; programmed death 1; pembrolizumab; nivolumab uveal melanoma; ocular melanoma; immune checkpoint blockade; CTLA-4; cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen; ipilimumab; PD-1; programmed death 1; pembrolizumab; nivolumab
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wessely, A.; Steeb, T.; Erdmann, M.; Heinzerling, L.; Vera, J.; Schlaak, M.; Berking, C.; Heppt, M.V. The Role of Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Uveal Melanoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 879. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030879

AMA Style

Wessely A, Steeb T, Erdmann M, Heinzerling L, Vera J, Schlaak M, Berking C, Heppt MV. The Role of Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Uveal Melanoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(3):879. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030879

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wessely, Anja, Theresa Steeb, Michael Erdmann, Lucie Heinzerling, Julio Vera, Max Schlaak, Carola Berking, and Markus V. Heppt 2020. "The Role of Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Uveal Melanoma" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 3: 879. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030879

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