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The Effects of Immunosuppressive Treatment during Pregnancy on the Levels of Potassium, Iron, Chromium, Zinc, Aluminum, Sodium and Molybdenum in Hard Tissues of Female Rats and Their Offspring

1
Department of Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powstancow Wlkp Street 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powstancow Wlkp Street 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
3
Department of Nephrology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powstancow Wlkp 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239038
Received: 14 October 2020 / Revised: 14 November 2020 / Accepted: 26 November 2020 / Published: 27 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism)
The ideal immunosuppressive regimen should provide for excellent immunosuppression with no side effects. Yet, current immunosuppressive therapy regimens commonly used in clinical applications fail to meet this criterion. One of the complications caused by immunosuppressive drugs is mineralization disorders in hard tissues. In this study, we evaluated the effects of three immunosuppressive therapies used after transplantation on the levels of potassium, iron, chromium, zinc, aluminum, sodium and molybdenum in the bones and teeth of female rats and their offspring. The study was conducted on 32 female Wistar rats, subjected to immunosuppressive regimens (cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone; tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone; and cyclosporine A, everolimus and prednisone). The hard tissues of rats were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, ICAP 7400 Duo, Thermo Scientific) equipped with a concentric nebulizer and a cyclonic spray chamber. All the immunosuppressive regimens included in the study affected the concentrations of the studied minerals in hard tissues of female rats and their offspring. The therapy based on cyclosporine A, everolimus and prednisone led to a decline in the levels of iron in bone, zinc in teeth, and molybdenum in the bone and teeth of mothers, while in the offspring, it caused a decline of bone potassium, with a decrease in iron and increase of molybdenum in teeth. Moreover, the regimen caused an increase in aluminum and chromium in the teeth and aluminum in the bones of the offspring, and consequently, it seems to be the therapy with the most negative impact on the mineral metabolism in hard tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunosuppressive therapy; pregnancy; elements content; bone; tooth immunosuppressive therapy; pregnancy; elements content; bone; tooth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Styburski, D.; Żwierełło, W.; Skórka-Majewicz, M.; Goschorska, M.; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I.; Kabat-Koperska, J.; Chlubek, D.; Gutowska, I. The Effects of Immunosuppressive Treatment during Pregnancy on the Levels of Potassium, Iron, Chromium, Zinc, Aluminum, Sodium and Molybdenum in Hard Tissues of Female Rats and Their Offspring. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9038. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239038

AMA Style

Styburski D, Żwierełło W, Skórka-Majewicz M, Goschorska M, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Kabat-Koperska J, Chlubek D, Gutowska I. The Effects of Immunosuppressive Treatment during Pregnancy on the Levels of Potassium, Iron, Chromium, Zinc, Aluminum, Sodium and Molybdenum in Hard Tissues of Female Rats and Their Offspring. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23):9038. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239038

Chicago/Turabian Style

Styburski, Daniel; Żwierełło, Wojciech; Skórka-Majewicz, Marta; Goschorska, Marta; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Gutowska, Izabela. 2020. "The Effects of Immunosuppressive Treatment during Pregnancy on the Levels of Potassium, Iron, Chromium, Zinc, Aluminum, Sodium and Molybdenum in Hard Tissues of Female Rats and Their Offspring" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 23: 9038. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239038

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