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MYC as a Multifaceted Regulator of Tumor Microenvironment Leading to Metastasis

1
Laboratory of Molecular Cancer Genetics, Department of Cellular, Computational, and Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, 38123 Povo (TN), Italy
2
Department of Biological Models, Institute of Biochemistry, Life Sciences Centre, Vilnius University, 10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
3
Laboratory of Biology of Development and Differentiation, Department of Biology, University Oran 1 Es-Senia, Oran 31000, Algeria
4
Department of Cellular Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Natural Life Sciences, University Blida 1, Ouled Yaïch 09015, Algeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(20), 7710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207710
Received: 17 September 2020 / Revised: 16 October 2020 / Accepted: 16 October 2020 / Published: 18 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myc Function and Regulation)
The Myc family of oncogenes is deregulated in many types of cancer, and their over-expression is often correlated with poor prognosis. The Myc family members are transcription factors that can coordinate the expression of thousands of genes. Among them, c-Myc (MYC) is the gene most strongly associated with cancer, and it is the focus of this review. It regulates the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, growth, differentiation, self-renewal, survival, metabolism, protein synthesis, and apoptosis. More recently, novel studies have shown that MYC plays a role not only in tumor initiation and growth but also has a broader spectrum of functions in tumor progression. MYC contributes to angiogenesis, immune evasion, invasion, and migration, which all lead to distant metastasis. Moreover, MYC is able to promote tumor growth and aggressiveness by recruiting stromal and tumor-infiltrating cells. In this review, we will dissect all of these novel functions and their involvement in the crosstalk between tumor and host, which have demonstrated that MYC is undoubtedly the master regulator of the tumor microenvironment. In sum, a better understanding of MYC’s role in the tumor microenvironment and metastasis development is crucial in proposing novel and effective cancer treatment strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: MYC; TAMs; tumor microenvironment; metastasis; EMT MYC; TAMs; tumor microenvironment; metastasis; EMT
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Meškytė, E.M.; Keskas, S.; Ciribilli, Y. MYC as a Multifaceted Regulator of Tumor Microenvironment Leading to Metastasis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7710.

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