This study aims to evaluate the potency of cisplatin (Cispt)-loaded liposome (LCispt) and PEGylated liposome (PLCispt) as therapeutic nanoformulations in the treatment of bladder cancer (BC). Cispt was loaded into liposomes using reverse-phase evaporation method, and the formulations were characterized using dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, dialysis membrane, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) methods. The results showed that the particles were formed in spherical monodispersed shapes with a nanoscale size (221–274 nm) and controlled drug release profile. The cytotoxicity effects of LCispt and PLCispt were assessed in an in vitro environment, and the results demonstrated that PLCispt caused a 2.4- and 1.9-fold increase in the cytotoxicity effects of Cispt after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The therapeutic and toxicity effects of the formulations were also assessed on BC-bearing rats. The results showed that PLCispt caused a 4.8-fold increase in the drug efficacy (tumor volume of 11 ± 0.5 and 2.3 ± 0.1 mm3
in Cispt and PLCispt receiver rats, respectively) and a 3.3-fold decrease in the toxicity effects of the drug (bodyweight gains of 3% and 10% in Cispt and PLCispt receiver rats, respectively). The results of toxicity were also confirmed by histopathological studies. Overall, this study suggests that the PEGylation of LCispt is a promising approach to achieve a nanoformulation with enhanced anticancer effects and reduced toxicity compared to Cispt for the treatment of BC.
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