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Open AccessReview

Effects of Ketamine on Rodent Fear Memory

1
Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
2
Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
3
Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
4
Daniel K. Inouye Graduate School of Nursing, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197173
Received: 2 September 2020 / Revised: 23 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 28 September 2020
Ketamine, a multimodal anesthetic drug, has become increasingly popular in the treatment of pain following traumatic injury as well as treatment-resistant major depressive disorders. However, the psychological impact of this dissociative medication on the development of stress-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains controversial. To address these concerns, preclinical studies have investigated the effects of ketamine administration on fear memory and stress-related behaviors in laboratory animals. Despite a well-documented line of research examining the effects of ketamine on fear memory, there is a lack of literature reviews on this important topic. Therefore, this review article summarizes the current preclinical literature on ketamine and fear memory with a particular emphasis on the route, dose, and timing of ketamine administration in rodent fear conditioning studies. Additionally, this review describes the molecular mechanisms by which ketamine may impact fear memory and stress-related behaviors. Overall, findings from previous studies are inconsistent in that fear memory may be increased, decreased, or unaltered following ketamine administration in rodents. These conflicting results can be explained by factors such as the route, dose, and timing of ketamine administration; the interaction between ketamine and stress; and individual variability in the rodent response to ketamine. This review also recommends that future preclinical studies utilize a clinically relevant route of administration and account for biological sex differences to improve translation between preclinical and clinical investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketamine; fear conditioning; fear memory; intravenous; stress; PTSD ketamine; fear conditioning; fear memory; intravenous; stress; PTSD
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, K.H.; Berman, R.Y.; Zhang, M.; Spencer, H.F.; Radford, K.D. Effects of Ketamine on Rodent Fear Memory. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7173. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197173

AMA Style

Choi KH, Berman RY, Zhang M, Spencer HF, Radford KD. Effects of Ketamine on Rodent Fear Memory. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(19):7173. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197173

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choi, Kwang H.; Berman, Rina Y.; Zhang, Michael; Spencer, Haley F.; Radford, Kennett D. 2020. "Effects of Ketamine on Rodent Fear Memory" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 19: 7173. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197173

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