Bacterial infections constitute a severe problem in various areas of everyday life, causing pain and death, and adding enormous costs to healthcare worldwide. Besides, they cause important concerns in other industries, such as cloth, food packaging, and biomedicine, among others. Despite the intensive efforts of academics and researchers, there is lack of a general solutions to restrict bacterial growth. Among the various approaches, the use of antibacterial nanomaterials is a very promising way to fight the microorganisms due to their high specific surface area and intrinsic or chemically incorporated antibacterial action. Graphene, a 2D carbon-based ultra-thin biocompatible nanomaterial with excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, and its derivatives, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), are highly suitable candidates for restricting microbial infections. However, the mechanisms of antimicrobial action, their cytotoxicity, and other issues remain unclear. This mini-review provides select examples on the leading advances in the development of antimicrobial nanocomposites incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and graphene or its derivatives, with the aim of providing a better understanding of the antibacterial properties of graphene-based nanomaterials.
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