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Review

Sphingolipids in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Ceramide Turnover

1
Liver Disease and Liver Metabolism Lab, CIC bioGUNE, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), 48160 Derio, Bizkaia, Spain
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48980 Leioa, Bizkaia, Spain
3
Instituto Biofisika (UPV/EHU, CSIC), University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010040
Received: 9 October 2019 / Revised: 12 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 19 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sphingolipids: Metabolic Functions and Disorders)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. NAFLD comprises a group of conditions characterized by the accumulation of hepatic lipids that can eventually lead to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fifth most common cancer type with a poor survival rate. In this context, several works have pointed out perturbations in lipid metabolism and, particularly, changes in bioactive sphingolipids, as a hallmark of NAFLD and derived HCC. In the present work, we have reviewed existing literature about sphingolipids and the development of NAFLD and NAFLD-derived HCC. During metabolic syndrome, considered a risk factor for steatosis development, an increase in ceramide and sphigosine-1-phosphate (S1P) have been reported. Likewise, other reports have highlighted that increased sphingomyelin and ceramide content is observed during steatosis and NASH. Ceramide also plays a role in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, acting synergistically with S1P. Finally, during HCC, metabolic fluxes are redirected to reduce cellular ceramide levels whilst increasing S1P to support tumor growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; NAFLD; NASH; cirrhosis; HCC; sphingolipids; ceramide; S1P; sphingomyelin; metabolomics; lipidomics Metabolic syndrome; NAFLD; NASH; cirrhosis; HCC; sphingolipids; ceramide; S1P; sphingomyelin; metabolomics; lipidomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Simon, J.; Ouro, A.; Ala-Ibanibo, L.; Presa, N.; Delgado, T.C.; Martínez-Chantar, M.L. Sphingolipids in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Ceramide Turnover. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010040

AMA Style

Simon J, Ouro A, Ala-Ibanibo L, Presa N, Delgado TC, Martínez-Chantar ML. Sphingolipids in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Ceramide Turnover. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(1):40. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010040

Chicago/Turabian Style

Simon, Jorge, Alberto Ouro, Lolia Ala-Ibanibo, Natalia Presa, Teresa Cardoso Delgado, and María Luz Martínez-Chantar. 2020. "Sphingolipids in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Ceramide Turnover" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 1: 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010040

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