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Tear Proteomics Approach to Monitoring Sjögren Syndrome or Dry Eye Disease

1
Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081932
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract

Sjögren syndrome (SS) or dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most complicated ocular surface diseases. The goal of this study is to elucidate the relationship of the changes in clinical indices of tear film (TF) homeostasis with respect to tear components to allow for SS-DED monitoring and avoid stably controlled SS-DED patients from re-entering a vicious cycle. This prospective case-control study compared stable SS-DED patients with non-SS-DED control from several aspects, including clinical indices for TF homeostasis, 2 DED diagnostic biomarkers (MMP-9 and lactoferrin), and the proteome of flush tears. Compared with non-SS-DED controls, stably controlled SS-DED subjects had less tear secretion and higher ocular surface inflammation, a higher concentration ratio of tear MMP-9/lactoferrin, a more diverse tear proteome, and lower spectral intensities of lipocalin-1, lacritin, and prolactin-inducible protein among the abundant tear proteins. For stable SS-DED patients, the concentration ratio of tear MMP-9/lactoferrin and the corrected lipocalin-1 signal was positively correlated with ocular inflammation and TF stability, respectively. MMP-9 released from stressed ocular surface epithelium and lipocalin-1 secreted from the energetic lacrimal gland are two tear biomarkers responding well to TF homeostasis. The tear proteomics approach through flush tears is a promising method for monitoring SS-DED patients with a standardized sampling procedure and lactoferrin-corrected analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry eye disease; Sjögren syndrome; tears; homeostasis; biomarkers dry eye disease; Sjögren syndrome; tears; homeostasis; biomarkers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kuo, M.-T.; Fang, P.-C.; Chao, T.-L.; Chen, A.; Lai, Y.-H.; Huang, Y.-T.; Tseng, C.-Y. Tear Proteomics Approach to Monitoring Sjögren Syndrome or Dry Eye Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1932.

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