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Drosophila Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase (Hipk) Phosphorylates the Homeodomain Proteins Homeobrain, Empty Spiracles, and Muscle Segment Homeobox

1
Developmental Biology, Saarland University, Building 61, 66421 Homburg, Germany
2
Inter-Faculty Institute for Cell Biology Animal Genetics, Auf der Morgenstelle 15, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
3
MVZ centre of laboratory medicine, Viktoriastraße 39, 56068 Koblenz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081931
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2019)
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Abstract

The Drosophila homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) is the fly representative of the well-conserved group of HIPKs in vertebrates. It was initially found through its characteristic interactions with homeodomain proteins. Hipk is involved in a variety of important developmental processes, such as the development of the eye or the nervous system. In the present study, we set Hipk and the Drosophila homeodomain proteins Homeobrain (Hbn), Empty spiracles (Ems), and Muscle segment homeobox (Msh) in an enzyme-substrate relationship. These homeoproteins are transcription factors that function during Drosophila neurogenesis and are, at least in part, conserved in vertebrates. We reveal a physical interaction between Hipk and the three homeodomain proteins in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). In the course of in vitro phosphorylation analysis and subsequent mutational analysis we mapped several Hipk phosphorylation sites of Hbn, Ems, and Msh. The phosphorylation of Hbn, Ems, and Msh may provide further insight into the function of Hipk during development of the Drosophila nervous system. View Full-Text
Keywords: homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk); serine/threonine kinase; homeodomain; Hbn; Ems; Msh; neurogenesis homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk); serine/threonine kinase; homeodomain; Hbn; Ems; Msh; neurogenesis
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Steinmetz, E.L.; Dewald, D.N.; Luxem, N.; Walldorf, U. Drosophila Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase (Hipk) Phosphorylates the Homeodomain Proteins Homeobrain, Empty Spiracles, and Muscle Segment Homeobox. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1931.

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