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The Olfactory System of Zebrafish as a Model for the Study of Neurotoxicity and Injury: Implications for Neuroplasticity and Disease

Department of Biological Sciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5410, USA
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071639
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish 2.0: A Model for Toxicological Research)
The olfactory system, composed of the olfactory organs and the olfactory bulb, allows organisms to interact with their environment and through the detection of odor signals. Olfaction mediates behaviors pivotal for survival, such as feeding, mating, social behavior, and danger assessment. The olfactory organs are directly exposed to the milieu, and thus are particularly vulnerable to damage by environmental pollutants and toxicants, such as heavy metals, pesticides, and surfactants, among others. Given the widespread occurrence of olfactory toxicants, there is a pressing need to understand the effects of these harmful compounds on olfactory function. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a valuable model for studying human physiology, disease, and toxicity. Additionally, the anatomical components of the zebrafish olfactory system are similar to those of other vertebrates, and they present a remarkable degree of regeneration and neuroplasticity, making it an ideal model for the study of regeneration, reorganization and repair mechanisms following olfactory toxicant exposure. In this review, we focus on (1) the anatomical, morphological, and functional organization of the olfactory system of zebrafish; (2) the adverse effects of olfactory toxicants and injury to the olfactory organ; and (3) remodeling and repair neuroplasticity mechanisms following injury and degeneration by olfactory toxicant exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: zebrafish; olfactory system; olfactory organ; olfactory bulb; toxicant; neuroplasticity; regeneration; injury zebrafish; olfactory system; olfactory organ; olfactory bulb; toxicant; neuroplasticity; regeneration; injury
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MDPI and ACS Style

Calvo-Ochoa, E.; Byrd-Jacobs, C.A. The Olfactory System of Zebrafish as a Model for the Study of Neurotoxicity and Injury: Implications for Neuroplasticity and Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1639. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071639

AMA Style

Calvo-Ochoa E, Byrd-Jacobs CA. The Olfactory System of Zebrafish as a Model for the Study of Neurotoxicity and Injury: Implications for Neuroplasticity and Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(7):1639. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071639

Chicago/Turabian Style

Calvo-Ochoa, Erika; Byrd-Jacobs, Christine A. 2019. "The Olfactory System of Zebrafish as a Model for the Study of Neurotoxicity and Injury: Implications for Neuroplasticity and Disease" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 7: 1639. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071639

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