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Open AccessArticle

Thyroid Hormone Disruptors Interfere with Molecular Pathways of Eye Development and Function in Zebrafish

1
Centre for Organismal Studies, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 504, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2
Vetsuisse Faculty, Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Länggassstrasse 122, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
3
Fischereiforschungsstelle LAZBW, Argenweg 50/1, 88085 Langenargen, Germany
4
Department of Veterinary Sciences, Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Zebrafishlab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2160 Wilrijk, Belgium
5
Department of Biology, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071543
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish 2.0: A Model for Toxicological Research)
The effects of thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals (THDCs) on eye development of zebrafish were investigated. We expected THDC exposure to cause transcriptional changes of vision-related genes, which find their phenotypic anchoring in eye malformations and dysfunction, as observed in our previous studies. Zebrafish were exposed from 0 to 5 days post fertilization (dpf) to either propylthiouracil (PTU), a thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, or tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), which interacts with thyroid hormone receptors. Full genome microarray analyses of RNA isolated from eye tissue revealed that the number of affected transcripts was substantially higher in PTU- than in TBBPA-treated larvae. However, multiple components of phototransduction (e.g., phosphodiesterase, opsins) were responsive to both THDC exposures. Yet, the response pattern for the gene ontology (GO)-class “sensory perception” differed between treatments, with over 90% down-regulation in PTU-exposed fish, compared to over 80% up-regulation in TBBPA-exposed fish. Additionally, the reversibility of effects after recovery in clean water for three days was investigated. Transcriptional patterns in the eyes were still altered and partly overlapped between 5 and 8 dpf, showing that no full recovery occurred within the time period investigated. However, pathways involved in repair mechanisms were significantly upregulated, which indicates activation of regeneration processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: PTU; TBBPA; mode of action; pathways of toxicity; microarray; transcriptome analyses PTU; TBBPA; mode of action; pathways of toxicity; microarray; transcriptome analyses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baumann, L.; Segner, H.; Ros, A.; Knapen, D.; Vergauwen, L. Thyroid Hormone Disruptors Interfere with Molecular Pathways of Eye Development and Function in Zebrafish. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1543.

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