Cancer is one of the most diagnosed diseases in developed countries. Inflammation is a common response to different stress situations including cancer and infection. In those processes, the family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has an important role regulating cytokine secretion, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis, among others. MAPKs regulate a large number of extracellular signals upon a variety of physiological as well as pathological conditions. MAPKs activation is tightly regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events. In this regard, the dual-specificity phosphatase 10 (DUSP10) has been described as a MAPK phosphatase that negatively regulates p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in several cellular types and tissues. Several studies have proposed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) can be also modulated by DUSP10. This suggests a complex role of DUSP10 on MAPKs regulation and, in consequence, its impact in a wide variety of responses involved in both cancer and inflammation. Here, we review DUSP10 function in cancerous and immune cells and studies in both mouse models and patients that establish a clear role of DUSP10 in different processes such as inflammation, immunity, and cancer.
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