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Anti-Inflammatory Response and Muscarinic Cholinergic Regulation during the Laxative Effect of Asparagus cochinchinensis in Loperamide-Induced Constipation of SD Rats

1
Department of Biomaterial Science, College of Natural Resources and Life Science/Life and Industry Convergence Research Institute, Pusan National University, Miryang 627-706, Korea
2
College of Human Ecology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea
3
College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Chungju 361-763, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040946
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nutrients, Immunity and Inflammation)
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Abstract

Several types of saponins and herbal plants containing saponins have been reported to have anti-inflammatory or laxative activities. To verify the therapeutic effects of saponin-enriched extracts of Asparagus cochinchinensis (SPA) on the anti-inflammatory response and on the cholinergic regulation in the gastrointestinal system, an alteration on the constipation phenotypes, on the inflammatory responses, and on the muscarinic cholinergic regulation were investigated in the transverse colons of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation after the treatment of SPA. Significant increases were observed on the total number of stools, the gastrointestinal transit, the thickness of the mucosal layer, the flat luminal surface, the number of paneth cells, and the lipid droplets in the Lop + SPA-treated group as compared to the Lop + Vehicle-treated group. SPA treatment induced the recovery of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) and IL-6), inflammatory mediators (NF-κB and iNOS), the total number of infiltered mast cells, and mucin secretion. Also, some similar improvements were observed on the levels of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity and on the phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC) as well as the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M2/M3 (mAChR M2/M3) and their mediators. The results presented herein provide the first strong evidence that SPA stimulates anti-inflammatory responses and the muscarinic cholinergic regulation when exerting its laxative effects in the chronic constipation of Lop-induced models. View Full-Text
Keywords: constipation; Asparagus cochinchinensis; inflammation; cytokines; acetylcholine esterase; muscarinic acetylcholine receptors constipation; Asparagus cochinchinensis; inflammation; cytokines; acetylcholine esterase; muscarinic acetylcholine receptors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, J.E.; Park, J.W.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, H.J.; Bae, S.J.; Choi, Y.S.; Lee, Y.J.; Lee, H.S.; Hong, J.T.; Hwang, D.Y. Anti-Inflammatory Response and Muscarinic Cholinergic Regulation during the Laxative Effect of Asparagus cochinchinensis in Loperamide-Induced Constipation of SD Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 946.

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