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The Reprimo Gene Family: A Novel Gene Lineage in Gastric Cancer with Tumor Suppressive Properties

1
Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330025 Santiago, Chile
2
Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, 5090000 Valdivia, Chile
3
Laboratory of Oncology, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330034 Santiago, Chile
4
Departamento de Oncología y Hematología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330034 Santiago, Chile
5
CORE Biodata, Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330024 Santiago, Chile
6
Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8331150 Santiago, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071862
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Features Distinguishing Gastric Cancer Subtypes)
The reprimo (RPRM) gene family is a group of single exon genes present exclusively within the vertebrate lineage. Two out of three members of this family are present in humans: RPRM and RPRM-Like (RPRML). RPRM induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M in response to p53 expression. Loss-of-expression of RPRM is related to increased cell proliferation and growth in gastric cancer. This evidence suggests that RPRM has tumor suppressive properties. However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling partners by which RPRM exerts its functions remain unknown. Moreover, scarce studies have attempted to characterize RPRML, and its functionality is unclear. Herein, we highlight the role of the RPRM gene family in gastric carcinogenesis, as well as its potential applications in clinical settings. In addition, we summarize the current knowledge on the phylogeny and expression patterns of this family of genes in embryonic zebrafish and adult humans. Strikingly, in both species, RPRM is expressed primarily in the digestive tract, blood vessels and central nervous system, supporting the use of zebrafish for further functional characterization of RPRM. Finally, drawing on embryonic and adult expression patterns, we address the potential relevance of RPRM and RPRML in cancer. Active investigation or analytical research in the coming years should contribute to novel translational applications of this poorly understood gene family as potential biomarkers and development of novel cancer therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: gastric cancer; reprimo; tumor suppressive gene properties; development; evolution; biomarker gastric cancer; reprimo; tumor suppressive gene properties; development; evolution; biomarker
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Amigo, J.D.; Opazo, J.C.; Jorquera, R.; Wichmann, I.A.; Garcia-Bloj, B.A.; Alarcon, M.A.; Owen, G.I.; Corvalán, A.H. The Reprimo Gene Family: A Novel Gene Lineage in Gastric Cancer with Tumor Suppressive Properties. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1862.

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