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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051511

Copaifera of the Neotropics: A Review of the Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-900 Belém, Brazil
2
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-900 Belém, Brazil
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
4
Aromatic Plant Research Center, 615 St. George Square Court, Suite 300, Winston-Salem, NC 27103, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Natural Products for Human Health)
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Abstract

The oleoresin of Copaifera trees has been widely used as a traditional medicine in Neotropical regions for thousands of years and remains a popular treatment for a variety of ailments. The copaiba resins are generally composed of a volatile oil made up largely of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, such as β-caryophyllene, α-copaene, β-elemene, α-humulene, and germacrene D. In addition, the oleoresin is also made up of several biologically active diterpene acids, including copalic acid, kaurenoic acid, alepterolic acid, and polyalthic acid. This review presents a summary of the ecology and distribution of Copaifera species, the traditional uses, the biological activities, and the phytochemistry of copaiba oleoresins. In addition, several biomolecular targets relevant to the bioactivities have been implicated by molecular docking methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: copaiba; oleoresin; essential oil; sesquiterpenoids; diterpenoids; biological activity; molecular targets copaiba; oleoresin; essential oil; sesquiterpenoids; diterpenoids; biological activity; molecular targets
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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da Trindade, R.; da Silva, J.K.; Setzer, W.N. Copaifera of the Neotropics: A Review of the Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1511.

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