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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061574

The Extracts and Major Compounds Derived from Astragali Radix Alter Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Cultured Cardiomyocytes: Comparison of Various Polar Solvents and Compounds

1
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Edible and Medicinal Bioresources, Shenzhen Research Institute, Hi-Tech Park, Nanshan, Shenzhen 518000, China
2
Division of Life Science and Center for Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Natural Products for Human Health)
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Abstract

Astragali Radix (AR) is a widely used “Qi-invigorating” herb in China for its tonic effects in strengthening biological tissues. The extract of AR contains abundant antioxidants, including astragalosides and isoflavonoids. However, very few reports have systematically measured the effects of the major components of AR on cell mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here, a systemic approach employing an extracellular flux analyzer was developed to evaluate mitochondrial respiration in cultured cardiomyocyte cells H9C2. The effects of different polar extractives, as well as of the major compounds of AR, were compared. The contents of astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, and genistein in the AR extracts obtained by using water, 50% ethanol, and 90% ethanol were measured by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC–MS). The antioxidant activities of the AR extracts, as well as of their major compounds, were determined by measuring the free radical scavenging activity and protective effects in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-treated H9C2 cells. By monitoring the real-time oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in tBHP-treated cardiomyocytes with a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer, the tonic effects of the AR extracts and of their main compounds on mitochondrial bioenergetics were evaluated. AR water extracts possessed the strongest antioxidant activity and protective effects in cardiomyocytes exposed to oxidative stress. The protection was proposed to be mediated via increasing the spare respiratory capacity and mitochondrial ATP production in the stressed cells. The major compounds of AR, astragaloside IV and genistein, showed opposite effects in regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics. These results demonstrate that highly polar extracts of AR, especially astragaloside-enriched extracts, possess better tonic effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics of cultured cardiomyocytes than extracts with a lower polarity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Astragali Radix; astragaloside IV; genistein; mitochondrial bioenergetics; oxygen consumption rate Astragali Radix; astragaloside IV; genistein; mitochondrial bioenergetics; oxygen consumption rate
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Huang, Y.; Kwan, K.K.L.; Leung, K.W.; Wang, H.; Kong, X.P.; Dong, T.T.X.; Tsim, K.W.K. The Extracts and Major Compounds Derived from Astragali Radix Alter Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Cultured Cardiomyocytes: Comparison of Various Polar Solvents and Compounds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1574.

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