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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 596;

Sea Buckthorn Pomace Supplementation in the Diet of Growing Pigs—Effects on Fatty Acid Metabolism, HPA Activity and Immune Status

Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Institutes of Muscle Biology and Growth, Behavioural Physiology, and Genetics and Biometry, 18196 Dummerstorf, Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, Germany
University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Clinic for Cattle Endocrinology Laboratory, 30173 Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge)
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There is evidence that sea buckthorn, as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), possesses health-enhancing properties and may modulate neuroendocrine and immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sea buckthorn pomace (SBP) supplementation in the diet of growing German Landrace pigs on fatty acids in the blood and hypothalamus, peripheral immune parameters and mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hypothalamus and spleen. Pigs were fed diets supplemented with 12% of dried SBP or 0% SBP (control group) over an intervention period of eight weeks. The fatty acid profiles in blood plasma were significantly affected by SBP supplementation only for C18:2n-6 and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with the control group. SBP supplementation did not significantly affect the fatty acid concentrations in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in mRNA expression of CRH, MR and GR in the hypothalamus or of GR mRNA expression in the spleen. Concerning the immune status, the plasma IgG levels tended to be higher in SBP pigs, whereas the leukocyte distribution, mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgM levels remained unchanged. In conclusion, the SBP supplementation of the diet only caused moderate effects on fatty acid metabolism, but no significant effects on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) activity and immunity in growing pigs. It seems that a beneficial effect of dietary n-3 PUFA on health and welfare is more likely to be expected during stressful situations. View Full-Text
Keywords: pig; sea buckthorn pomace; n-3 PUFA; mRNA expression; hypothalamus; immunity pig; sea buckthorn pomace; n-3 PUFA; mRNA expression; hypothalamus; immunity

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Dannenberger, D.; Tuchscherer, M.; Nürnberg, G.; Schmicke, M.; Kanitz, E. Sea Buckthorn Pomace Supplementation in the Diet of Growing Pigs—Effects on Fatty Acid Metabolism, HPA Activity and Immune Status. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 596.

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