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Methodology of Drought Stress Research: Experimental Setup and Physiological Characterization

1
Department of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
2
Department of Biochemistry, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199904, Russia
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Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Halle (Saale) 06120, Germany
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Institute of Analytical Instrumentation, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg 190103, Russia
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All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, St. Petersburg 196608, Russia
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Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
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Department of Scientific Information, Russian Academy of Sciences Library, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally on the manuscript.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124089
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
Drought is one of the major stress factors affecting the growth and development of plants. In this context, drought-related losses of crop plant productivity impede sustainable agriculture all over the world. In general, plants respond to water deficits by multiple physiological and metabolic adaptations at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels. To understand the underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance, adequate stress models and arrays of reliable stress markers are required. Therefore, in this review we comprehensively address currently available models of drought stress, based on culturing plants in soil, hydroponically, or in agar culture, and critically discuss advantages and limitations of each design. We also address the methodology of drought stress characterization and discuss it in the context of real experimental approaches. Further, we highlight the trends of methodological developments in drought stress research, i.e., complementing conventional tests with quantification of phytohormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS), measuring antioxidant enzyme activities, and comprehensively profiling transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. View Full-Text
Keywords: drought stress; drought models; drought tolerance; oxidative stress; phytohormones; polyethylene glycol (PEG); stress markers drought stress; drought models; drought tolerance; oxidative stress; phytohormones; polyethylene glycol (PEG); stress markers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Osmolovskaya, N.; Shumilina, J.; Kim, A.; Didio, A.; Grishina, T.; Bilova, T.; Keltsieva, O.A.; Zhukov, V.; Tikhonovich, I.; Tarakhovskaya, E.; Frolov, A.; Wessjohann, L.A. Methodology of Drought Stress Research: Experimental Setup and Physiological Characterization. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 4089.

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