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Open AccessReview

Cell-Based Therapies for Cardiac Regeneration: A Comprehensive Review of Past and Ongoing Strategies

1
IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza Malan 2, San Donato Milanese, 20097 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, via Luigi Mangiagalli 31, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work and share the first authorship of the manuscript.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103194
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role and Application of Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine)
Despite considerable improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, heart failure (HF) still represents one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Poor prognosis is mostly due to the limited regenerative capacity of the adult human heart, which ultimately leads to left ventricular dysfunction. As a consequence, heart transplantation is virtually the only alternative for many patients. Therefore, novel regenerative approaches are extremely needed, and several attempts have been performed to improve HF patients’ clinical conditions by promoting the replacement of the lost cardiomyocytes and by activating cardiac repair. In particular, cell-based therapies have been shown to possess a great potential for cardiac regeneration. Different cell types have been extensively tested in clinical trials, demonstrating consistent safety results. However, heterogeneous efficacy data have been reported, probably because precise end-points still need to be clearly defined. Moreover, the principal mechanism responsible for these beneficial effects seems to be the paracrine release of antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory molecules from the injected cells. This review covers past and state-of-the-art strategies in cell-based heart regeneration, highlighting the advantages, challenges, and limitations of each approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart dysfunction; heart failure; cardiac regeneration; stem cells; cell therapy; cardiac clinical trials; translational medicine heart dysfunction; heart failure; cardiac regeneration; stem cells; cell therapy; cardiac clinical trials; translational medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghiroldi, A.; Piccoli, M.; Cirillo, F.; Monasky, M.M.; Ciconte, G.; Pappone, C.; Anastasia, L. Cell-Based Therapies for Cardiac Regeneration: A Comprehensive Review of Past and Ongoing Strategies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3194. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103194

AMA Style

Ghiroldi A, Piccoli M, Cirillo F, Monasky MM, Ciconte G, Pappone C, Anastasia L. Cell-Based Therapies for Cardiac Regeneration: A Comprehensive Review of Past and Ongoing Strategies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(10):3194. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103194

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghiroldi, Andrea; Piccoli, Marco; Cirillo, Federica; Monasky, Michelle M.; Ciconte, Giuseppe; Pappone, Carlo; Anastasia, Luigi. 2018. "Cell-Based Therapies for Cardiac Regeneration: A Comprehensive Review of Past and Ongoing Strategies" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 10: 3194. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103194

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