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Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity in Transformed and Non-Transformed Cells

Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 15931-15958;
Received: 17 June 2013 / Revised: 19 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
PDF [446 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Radiation damage to biological systems is determined by the type of radiation, the total dosage of exposure, the dose rate, and the region of the body exposed. Three modes of cell death—necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy—as well as accelerated senescence have been demonstrated to occur in vitro and in vivo in response to radiation in cancer cells as well as in normal cells. The basis for cellular selection for each mode depends on various factors including the specific cell type involved, the dose of radiation absorbed by the cell, and whether it is proliferating and/or transformed. Here we review the signaling mechanisms activated by radiation for the induction of toxicity in transformed and normal cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of radiation toxicity is critical for the development of radiation countermeasures as well as for the improvement of clinical radiation in cancer treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionizing radiation; apoptosis; necrosis; senescence; autophagy; cancer; primary cell ionizing radiation; apoptosis; necrosis; senescence; autophagy; cancer; primary cell
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Panganiban, R.-A.M.; Snow, A.L.; Day, R.M. Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity in Transformed and Non-Transformed Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 15931-15958.

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