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Open AccessArticle

Direct Potentiometric Study of Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants in Disinfectants and Personal Care Products by New Surfactant Sensor Based on 1,3-Dihexadecyl−1H-benzo[d]imidazol−3-ium

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Faculty of Geotechnical Engineering, University of Zagreb, 42000 Varaždin, Croatia
2
Department of Biotechnology, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Department of Food Technology, University North, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
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Saponia Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Foodstuff Industry, Inc., 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Packaging, Recycling and Environmental Protection, University North, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
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Department of Chemistry, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Celeiro and Maria Llompart
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051366
Received: 27 January 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2021 / Accepted: 26 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Advances in Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Analysis)
A novel, simple, low-cost, and user-friendly potentiometric surfactant sensor based on the new 1,3-dihexadecyl−1H-benzo[d]imidazol−3-ium-tetraphenylborate (DHBI–TPB) ion-pair for the detection of cationic surfactants in personal care products and disinfectants is presented here. The new cationic surfactant DHBI-Br was successfully synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and elemental analysis and was further employed for DHBI–TPB ion-pair preparation. The sensor gave excellent response characteristics for CTAB, CPC and Hyamine with a Nernstian slope (57.1 to 59.1 mV/decade) whereas the lowest limit of detection (LOD) value was measured for CTAB (0.3 × 10−6 M). The sensor exhibited a fast dynamic response to dodecyl sulfate (DDS) and TPB. High sensor performances stayed intact regardless of the employment of inorganic and organic cations and in a broad pH range (2−11). Titration of cationic and etoxylated (EO)-nonionic surfactant (NSs) (in Ba2+) mixtures with TPB revealed the first inflexion point for a cationic surfactant and the second for an EO-nonionic surfactant. The increased concentration of EO-nonionic surfactants and the number of EO groups had a negative influence on titration curves and signal change. The sensor was successfully applied for the quantification of technical-grade cationic surfactants and in 12 personal care products and disinfectants. The results showed good agreement with the measurements obtained by a commercial surfactant sensor and by a two-phase titration. A good recovery for the standard addition method (98–102%) was observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: cationic surfactants; disinfectants; ionophore; nonionic surfactants; nose drops; personal care products; potentiometry; sensor cationic surfactants; disinfectants; ionophore; nonionic surfactants; nose drops; personal care products; potentiometry; sensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakač, N.; Marković, D.; Šarkanj, B.; Madunić-Čačić, D.; Hajdek, K.; Smoljan, B.; Jozanović, M. Direct Potentiometric Study of Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants in Disinfectants and Personal Care Products by New Surfactant Sensor Based on 1,3-Dihexadecyl−1H-benzo[d]imidazol−3-ium. Molecules 2021, 26, 1366. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051366

AMA Style

Sakač N, Marković D, Šarkanj B, Madunić-Čačić D, Hajdek K, Smoljan B, Jozanović M. Direct Potentiometric Study of Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants in Disinfectants and Personal Care Products by New Surfactant Sensor Based on 1,3-Dihexadecyl−1H-benzo[d]imidazol−3-ium. Molecules. 2021; 26(5):1366. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051366

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakač, Nikola; Marković, Dean; Šarkanj, Bojan; Madunić-Čačić, Dubravka; Hajdek, Krunoslav; Smoljan, Božo; Jozanović, Marija. 2021. "Direct Potentiometric Study of Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants in Disinfectants and Personal Care Products by New Surfactant Sensor Based on 1,3-Dihexadecyl−1H-benzo[d]imidazol−3-ium" Molecules 26, no. 5: 1366. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051366

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