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Article

Metabolomic Profiling of Antioxidant Compounds in Five Vachellia Species

1
College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Laboratories, University of South Africa, Florida, Johannesburg 1710, South Africa
2
Department of Life and Consumer Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Florida, Johannesburg 1710, South Africa
3
Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Florida, Johannesburg 1710, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fernandez De Simon Brigida
Molecules 2021, 26(20), 6214; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206214
Received: 23 August 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR-Based Metabolomics of Food and Natural Products)
The genus Vachellia, previously known as Acacia, belongs to the family Fabaceae, subfamily Leguminosae, which are flowering plants, commonly known as thorn trees. They are traditionally used medicinally in various countries including South Africa for the treatment of ailments such as fever, sore throat, Tuberculosis, convulsions and as sedatives. The aim of this study was to determine biochemical variations in five Vachellia species and correlate their metabolite profiles to antioxidant activity using a chemometric approach. The antioxidant activity of five Vachellia aqueous-methanolic extracts were analyzed using three methods: 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+) analysis and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay by means of serial dilution and bioautography with the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method. Amongst the Vachellia extracts tested, V. karroo, V. kosiensis and V. xanthophloea demonstrated the highest DPPH, ABTS+ and FRAP inhibitory activity. The antioxidant activities of DPPH were higher than those obtained by ABTS+, although these values varied among the Vachellia species. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), coupled with multivariate statistical modeling tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were performed to profile metabolites responsible for the observed activity. The OPLS-DA categorized the five Vachellia species, separating them into two groups, with V. karroo, V. kosiensis and V. xanthophloea demonstrating significantly higher radical scavenging activity than V. tortilis and V. sieberiana, which clustered together to form another group with lower radical scavenging activity. Annotation of metabolites was carried out using the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-qTOF-MS), and it tentatively identified 23 metabolites of significance, including epigallocatechin (m/z = 305.0659), methyl gallate (m/z = 183.0294) and quercetin (m/z = 301.0358), amongst others. These results elucidated the metabolites that separated the Vachellia species from each other and demonstrated their possible free radical scavenging activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural products; Vachellia; antioxidant; metabolomics; 1H NMR; UHPLC-qTOF-MS natural products; Vachellia; antioxidant; metabolomics; 1H NMR; UHPLC-qTOF-MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

More, G.K.; Meddows-Taylor, S.; Prinsloo, G. Metabolomic Profiling of Antioxidant Compounds in Five Vachellia Species. Molecules 2021, 26, 6214. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206214

AMA Style

More GK, Meddows-Taylor S, Prinsloo G. Metabolomic Profiling of Antioxidant Compounds in Five Vachellia Species. Molecules. 2021; 26(20):6214. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206214

Chicago/Turabian Style

More, Garland K., Stephen Meddows-Taylor, and Gerhard Prinsloo. 2021. "Metabolomic Profiling of Antioxidant Compounds in Five Vachellia Species" Molecules 26, no. 20: 6214. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206214

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