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Article

Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemical Properties of Seven Taiwanese Cirsium Species Extracts

1
The Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
2
Department of Golden-Ager Industry Management, College of Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung 413, Taiwan
3
Department of Pharmacy, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung 404, Taiwan
4
School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
5
Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Maria Atanassova
Molecules 2021, 26(13), 3935; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133935
Received: 14 May 2021 / Revised: 25 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
In the present investigation, we compared the radical-scavenging activities and phenolic contents of seven Taiwanese Cirsium species with a spectrophotometric method. We further analyzed their phytochemical profiles with high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detection (HPLC–DAD). We found that the flower part of Cirsium japonicum var. australe (CJF) showed the best radical-scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and the hypochlorite ion, for which the equivalents were 6.44 ± 0.17 mg catechin/g, 54.85 ± 0.66 mmol Trolox/g and 418.69 ± 10.52 mmol Trolox/g respectively. CJF also had the highest contents of total phenolics (5.23 ± 0.20 mg catechin/g) and phenylpropanoids (29.73 ± 0.72 mg verbascoside/g). According to the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation between the total phenylpropanoid content and ABTS radical-scavenging activities (r = 0.979). The radical-scavenging activities of the phenylpropanoids are closely related to their reducing power (r = 0.986). HPLC chromatograms obtained in validated HPLC conditions confirm that they have different phytochemical profiles by which they can be distinguished. Only CJF contained silicristin (0.66 ± 0.03 mg/g) and silydianin (9.13 ± 0.30 mg/g). CJF contained the highest contents of apigenin (5.56 ± 0.09 mg/g) and diosmetin (2.82 ± 0.10 mg/g). Among the major constituents, silicristin had the best radical-scavenging activities against DPPH (71.68 ± 0.66 mg catechin/g) and ABTS (3.01 ± 0.01 mmol Trolox/g). However, diosmetin had the best reducing power and radical-scavenging activity against the hypochlorite anion (41.57 ± 1.14 mg mmol Trolox/g). Finally, we found that flavonolignans (especial silicristin and silydianin) and diosmetin acted synergistically in scavenging radicals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cirsium species; silymarin; silicristin; antioxidant activities; phytochemical profiles; HPLC–DAD Cirsium species; silymarin; silicristin; antioxidant activities; phytochemical profiles; HPLC–DAD
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Z.-W.; Chang, H.-C.; Ching, H.; Lien, J.-C.; Huang, H.-C.; Wu, C.-R. Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemical Properties of Seven Taiwanese Cirsium Species Extracts. Molecules 2021, 26, 3935. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133935

AMA Style

Zhao Z-W, Chang H-C, Ching H, Lien J-C, Huang H-C, Wu C-R. Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemical Properties of Seven Taiwanese Cirsium Species Extracts. Molecules. 2021; 26(13):3935. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133935

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Zi-Wei, Hung-Chi Chang, Hui Ching, Jin-Cherng Lien, Hui-Chi Huang, and Chi-Rei Wu. 2021. "Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemical Properties of Seven Taiwanese Cirsium Species Extracts" Molecules 26, no. 13: 3935. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133935

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