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Review

Targeting Multiple Signal Transduction Pathways of SARS-CoV-2: Approaches to COVID-19 Therapeutic Candidates

1
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6734667149, Iran
2
Student Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6714415153, Iran
3
Medical Biology Research Center, Health Technology Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6734667149, Iran
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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Etiler, Ankara 06330, Turkey
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Instituto de Investigación y Postgrado, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Central de Chile, Santiago 8330507, Chile
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Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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Medical Technology Research Center, Health Technology Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6734667149, Iran
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Departamento de Ciencias del Ambiente, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago 9170022, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors have contributed equally to this review.
Academic Editor: Kyoko Nakagawa-Goto
Molecules 2021, 26(10), 2917; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102917
Received: 18 March 2021 / Revised: 30 April 2021 / Accepted: 11 May 2021 / Published: 14 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for COVID-19: Prevention and Treatment)
Due to the complicated pathogenic pathways of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), related medicinal therapies have remained a clinical challenge. COVID-19 highlights the urgent need to develop mechanistic pathogenic pathways and effective agents for preventing/treating future epidemics. As a result, the destructive pathways of COVID-19 are in the line with clinical symptoms induced by severe acute coronary syndrome (SARS), including lung failure and pneumonia. Accordingly, revealing the exact signaling pathways, including inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy, as well as relative representative mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Bax/caspases, and Beclin/LC3, respectively, will pave the road for combating COVID-19. Prevailing host factors and multiple steps of SARS-CoV-2 attachment/entry, replication, and assembly/release would be hopeful strategies against COVID-19. This is a comprehensive review of the destructive signaling pathways and host–pathogen interaction of SARS-CoV-2, as well as related therapeutic targets and treatment strategies, including potential natural products-based candidates. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; signaling pathway; inflammation; oxidative stress; apoptosis; autophagy; natural products coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; signaling pathway; inflammation; oxidative stress; apoptosis; autophagy; natural products
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fakhri, S.; Nouri, Z.; Moradi, S.Z.; Akkol, E.K.; Piri, S.; Sobarzo-Sánchez, E.; Farzaei, M.H.; Echeverría, J. Targeting Multiple Signal Transduction Pathways of SARS-CoV-2: Approaches to COVID-19 Therapeutic Candidates. Molecules 2021, 26, 2917. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102917

AMA Style

Fakhri S, Nouri Z, Moradi SZ, Akkol EK, Piri S, Sobarzo-Sánchez E, Farzaei MH, Echeverría J. Targeting Multiple Signal Transduction Pathways of SARS-CoV-2: Approaches to COVID-19 Therapeutic Candidates. Molecules. 2021; 26(10):2917. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102917

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fakhri, Sajad, Zeinab Nouri, Seyed Z. Moradi, Esra K. Akkol, Sana Piri, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Mohammad H. Farzaei, and Javier Echeverría. 2021. "Targeting Multiple Signal Transduction Pathways of SARS-CoV-2: Approaches to COVID-19 Therapeutic Candidates" Molecules 26, no. 10: 2917. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102917

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