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Article

Effect of Enzymatic, Ultrasound, and Reflux Extraction Pretreatments on the Yield and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils

1
Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 35, 21 000 Split, Croatia
3
NMR Centre, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Department of Natural and Health Sciences, Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Zagrebačka 30, 52 100 Pula, Croatia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Petras Rimantas Venskutonis
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4818; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204818
Received: 8 September 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 20 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants from Natural Sources: Separation and Characterization)
The effect of different hydrodistillation pretreatments, namely, reflux extraction, reflux extraction with the addition of cell wall-degrading enzymes, and ultrasound, on the yield and chemical composition of essential oils of sage, bay laurel, and rosemary was examined. All pretreatments improved essential oil yield compared to no-pretreatment control (40–64% yield increase), while the oil quality remained mostly unchanged (as shown by statistical analysis of GC-MS results). However, enzyme-assisted reflux extraction pretreatment did not significantly outperform reflux extraction (no-enzyme control), suggesting that the observed yield increase was mostly a consequence of reflux extraction and enzymatic activity had only a minute effect. Thus, we show that ultrasound and reflux extraction pretreatments are beneficial in the production of essential oils of selected Mediterranean plants, but the application of enzymes has to be carefully re-evaluated. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clevenger hydrodistillation; Salvia officinalis L.; Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Laurus nobilis L.; cell wall-degrading enzymes; ultrasound pretreatment; reflux extraction pretreatment; GC-MS analysis Clevenger hydrodistillation; Salvia officinalis L.; Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Laurus nobilis L.; cell wall-degrading enzymes; ultrasound pretreatment; reflux extraction pretreatment; GC-MS analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miljanović, A.; Bielen, A.; Grbin, D.; Marijanović, Z.; Andlar, M.; Rezić, T.; Roca, S.; Jerković, I.; Vikić-Topić, D.; Dent, M. Effect of Enzymatic, Ultrasound, and Reflux Extraction Pretreatments on the Yield and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils. Molecules 2020, 25, 4818. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204818

AMA Style

Miljanović A, Bielen A, Grbin D, Marijanović Z, Andlar M, Rezić T, Roca S, Jerković I, Vikić-Topić D, Dent M. Effect of Enzymatic, Ultrasound, and Reflux Extraction Pretreatments on the Yield and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils. Molecules. 2020; 25(20):4818. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204818

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miljanović, Anđela, Ana Bielen, Dorotea Grbin, Zvonimir Marijanović, Martina Andlar, Tonči Rezić, Sunčica Roca, Igor Jerković, Dražen Vikić-Topić, and Maja Dent. 2020. "Effect of Enzymatic, Ultrasound, and Reflux Extraction Pretreatments on the Yield and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils" Molecules 25, no. 20: 4818. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204818

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