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Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer—Clinical and Preclinical Research Insights

1
Molecular Oncology Unit, Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
2
First Department of Internal Medicine, Laikon General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25020358
Received: 2 December 2019 / Revised: 11 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
The Androgen Receptor (AR) is emerging as an important factor in the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC), which is the most common malignancy among females worldwide. The concordance of more than 70% of AR expression in primary and metastatic breast tumors implies that AR may be a new marker and a potential therapeutic target among AR-positive breast cancer patients. Biological insight into AR-positive breast cancer reveals that AR may cross-talk with several vital signaling pathways, including key molecules and receptors. AR exhibits different behavior depending on the breast cancer subtype. Preliminary clinical research using AR-targeted drugs, which have already been FDA-approved for prostate cancer (PC), has given promising results for AR-positive breast cancer patients. However, since the prognostic and predictive value of AR positivity remains uncertain, it is difficult to identify and stratify patients that would benefit from AR-targeted therapies. Herein, through a review of preclinical studies, clinical studies, and clinical trials, we summarize the biology of AR, its prognostic and predictive value, as well as its therapeutic implications by breast cancer molecular subtype. View Full-Text
Keywords: androgen receptor; breast cancer; triple negative breast cancer; estrogen receptor; androgens; antiandrogens androgen receptor; breast cancer; triple negative breast cancer; estrogen receptor; androgens; antiandrogens
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Anestis, A.; Zoi, I.; Papavassiliou, A.G.; Karamouzis, M.V. Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer—Clinical and Preclinical Research Insights. Molecules 2020, 25, 358.

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