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Open AccessArticle

Systematic Detection and Identification of Bioactive Ingredients from Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Using HPLC-Q-TOF-MS Combined with a Screening Method

1
Hunan Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine & College of Food Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
2
College of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China
3
Green Melody Bio-engineering Group Company Limited, Changsha 410329, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribution equally to this work.
Molecules 2020, 25(2), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25020357 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 December 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
Bitter orange, Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (CAVA), is an important crop and its flowers and fruits are widely used in China as a food spice, as well as in traditional Chinese medicine, due to its health-promoting properties. The secondary metabolites that are present in plant-derived foods or medicines are, in part, responsible for the health benefits and desirable flavor profiles. Nevertheless, detailed information about the bioactive ingredients in CAVA is scarce. Therefore, this study was aimed at exploring the phytochemicals of CAVA by high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Here, a systematic screening method combined with HPLC-Q-TOF-MS was presented. This technique was used to systematically screen metabolites, primarily from the complex matrix of CAVA, and to identify these compounds by their exact masses, characteristic fragment ions, and fragmentation behaviors. A total of 295 metabolites were screened by the screening method and 89 phytochemicals were identified in the flowers, fruits, roots, leaves, and branches of CAVA. For the first time, 69 phytochemicals (flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc.) were reported from CAVA. The results highlight the importance of CAVA as a source of secondary metabolites in the food, medicine, and nutraceutical industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus aurantium L. var. amara; HPLC-Q-TOF-MS; screening method; metabolites; flavonoids; alkaloids Citrus aurantium L. var. amara; HPLC-Q-TOF-MS; screening method; metabolites; flavonoids; alkaloids
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Yu, L.; Chen, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.; He, W.; Qing, Z.; Zeng, J. Systematic Detection and Identification of Bioactive Ingredients from Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Using HPLC-Q-TOF-MS Combined with a Screening Method. Molecules 2020, 25, 357.

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