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Open AccessArticle

Optimization of Ultrasonic Flavonoid Extraction from Saussurea involucrate, and the Ability of Flavonoids to Block Melanin Deposition in Human Melanocytes

by Chun-Yan Dai 1,2,3,4,†, Pei-Ran Liao 1,2,3,4,†, Ming-Zhuo Zhao 1,2,3,4, Chao Gong 1, Yue Dang 1,2,3,4, Yuan Qu 1,2,3,4,* and Li-Sha Qiu 1,2,3,4,*
1
College of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
2
Yunnan Key Laboratory of Sustainable Utilization of Panax Notoginseng, Kunming 650500, China
3
Laboratory of Sustainable Utilization of Panax Notoginseng Resources, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming 650500, China
4
Kunming University of Science and Technology, Analysis and Testing Center, Kunming 650500, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Marcello Locatelli, Angela Tartaglia, Abuzar Kabir, Dora Melucci, Roberta Risoluti and Stefano Materazzi
Molecules 2020, 25(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25020313
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 2 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(1) Background: Flavonoids are the primary medicinal ingredient of Saussurea involucrate, which have significant antioxidant capacity. Optimizing the extraction of Saussurea involucrate flavonoids (SIFs) and exploring the ability to block melanin deposition caused by reactive oxygen can greatly promote the development of S. involucrate whitening products. (2) Methods: Ultrasonic extraction process was optimized using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Then, the effect of SIFs on antioxidant activity and anti-deposition of melanin, and genes related to the melanin synthesis are studied. (3) Results: The optimal extraction procedures are as follows: the extraction time, ethanol content, and solvent ratio (v/w) are 64 min, 54%, and 54:1, respectively. The reducing activity and scavenging rates of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and ABTS+ were promoted as more S. involucrate flavonoid extract was added. The SIFs extract induced a decrease in the melanin synthesis by inhibiting the human melanoma A375 cell tyrosinase activity. SIFs also depress expression of melanin synthesis related genes. (4) Conclusions: the highest SIFs content was obtained by using 54% ethanol and 54:1 solvent ratio (v/w) for 64 min. The extract of SIFs exhibited good ability of antioxidant and anti-deposition of melanin in human melanocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Saussurea involucrate; ultrasonic extraction process; response surface; antioxidant; human melanoma A375 cells Saussurea involucrate; ultrasonic extraction process; response surface; antioxidant; human melanoma A375 cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dai, C.-Y.; Liao, P.-R.; Zhao, M.-Z.; Gong, C.; Dang, Y.; Qu, Y.; Qiu, L.-S. Optimization of Ultrasonic Flavonoid Extraction from Saussurea involucrate, and the Ability of Flavonoids to Block Melanin Deposition in Human Melanocytes. Molecules 2020, 25, 313.

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