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Article

Uptake and Glycosylation of Smoke-Derived Volatile Phenols by Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Their Subsequent Fate during Winemaking

1
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
2
The Australian Research Council Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
3
The Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
4
School of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Teresa Escribano-Bailón
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3720; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163720
Received: 5 July 2020 / Revised: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
Wine made from grapes exposed to bushfire smoke can exhibit unpleasant smoky, ashy characters, which have been attributed to the presence of smoke-derived volatile phenols, in free or glycosylated forms. Here we report the uptake and glycosylation of volatile phenols by grapes following exposure of Cabernet Sauvignon vines to smoke, and their fate during winemaking. A significant delay was observed in the conversion of volatile phenols to their corresponding glycoconjugates, which suggests sequestration, the presence of intermediates within the glycosylation pathway and/or other volatile phenol storage forms. This finding has implications for industry in terms of detecting smoke-affected grapes following vineyard smoke exposure. The potential for an in-canopy sprinkler system to mitigate the uptake of smoke-derived volatile phenols by grapes, by spraying grapevines with water during smoke exposure, was also evaluated. While “misting” appeared to partially mitigate the uptake of volatile phenols by grapes during grapevine exposure to smoke, it did not readily influence the concentration of volatile phenols or the sensory perception of smoke taint in wine. Commercial sensors were used to monitor the concentration of smoke particulate matter (PM) during grapevine exposure to low and high density smoke. Similar PM profiles were observed, irrespective of smoke density, such that PM concentrations did not reflect the extent of smoke exposure by grapes or risk of taint in wine. The sensors could nevertheless be used to monitor the presence of smoke in vineyards during bushfires, and hence, the need for compositional analysis of grapes to quantify smoke taint marker compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: acid hydrolysis; cresols; guaiacol; particulate matter; rate-all-that-apply; sensors; smoke taint; syringol; volatile phenol glycosides; wine acid hydrolysis; cresols; guaiacol; particulate matter; rate-all-that-apply; sensors; smoke taint; syringol; volatile phenol glycosides; wine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szeto, C.; Ristic, R.; Capone, D.; Puglisi, C.; Pagay, V.; Culbert, J.; Jiang, W.; Herderich, M.; Tuke, J.; Wilkinson, K. Uptake and Glycosylation of Smoke-Derived Volatile Phenols by Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Their Subsequent Fate during Winemaking. Molecules 2020, 25, 3720. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163720

AMA Style

Szeto C, Ristic R, Capone D, Puglisi C, Pagay V, Culbert J, Jiang W, Herderich M, Tuke J, Wilkinson K. Uptake and Glycosylation of Smoke-Derived Volatile Phenols by Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Their Subsequent Fate during Winemaking. Molecules. 2020; 25(16):3720. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163720

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szeto, Colleen, Renata Ristic, Dimitra Capone, Carolyn Puglisi, Vinay Pagay, Julie Culbert, WenWen Jiang, Markus Herderich, Jonathan Tuke, and Kerry Wilkinson. 2020. "Uptake and Glycosylation of Smoke-Derived Volatile Phenols by Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Their Subsequent Fate during Winemaking" Molecules 25, no. 16: 3720. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163720

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