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Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial Activities of Ellagitannins against Clostridiales perfringens, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus aureus

1
Natural Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland
2
Department of Food and Nutritional Studies, The University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AH, UK
3
Folium Science, Unit-DX, Bristol BS2 OXJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3714; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163714
Received: 25 June 2020 / Revised: 6 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
In this study, we tested the growth inhibition effect of 22 individual ellagitannins and of pentagalloylglucose on four bacterial species, i.e., Clostridiales perfringens, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus aureus. All tested compounds showed antimicrobial effects against S. aureus, and almost all against E. coli and C. perfringens. For L. plantarum, no or very weak growth inhibition was detected. The level of inhibition was the greatest for S. aureus and the weakest for C. perfringens. For S. aureus, the molecular size or flexibility of ellagitannins did not show a clear relationship with their antimicrobial activity, even though rugosins E and D and pentagalloylglucose with four or five free galloyl groups had a stronger growth inhibition effect than the other ellagitannins with glucopyranose cores but with less free galloyl groups. Additionally, our results with S. aureus showed that the oligomeric linkage of ellagitannin might have an effect on its antimicrobial activity. For E. coli, the molecular size, but not the molecular flexibility, of ellagitannins seemed to be an important factor. For C. perfringens, both the molecular size and the flexibility of ellagitannin were important factors. In previous studies, corilagin was used as a model for ellagitannins, but our results showed that other ellagitannins are much more efficacious; therefore, the antimicrobial effects of ellagitannins could be more significant than previously thought. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibacterial; growth inhibition; hydrolysable tannins; polyphenols antibacterial; growth inhibition; hydrolysable tannins; polyphenols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Puljula, E.; Walton, G.; Woodward, M.J.; Karonen, M. Antimicrobial Activities of Ellagitannins against Clostridiales perfringens, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules 2020, 25, 3714.

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