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Open AccessArticle

Recovery and Stabilization of Anthocyanins and Phenolic Antioxidants of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) with Hydrophilic Deep Eutectic Solvents

1
Department of Food Engineering, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun 55139, Turkey
2
College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3
Research & Innovation Department, Galanakis Laboratories, 73131 Chania, Greece
4
Food Waste Recovery Group, ISEKI Food Association, 1190 Vienna, Austria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gonzalo de Gonzalo and Mara Guadalupe Freire Martins
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3715; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163715
Received: 24 July 2020 / Revised: 12 August 2020 / Accepted: 14 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 25th Anniversary of Molecules—Recent Advances in Green Chemistry)
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have got huge interest as new green and sustainable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants in recent decades. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hydrophilic DES for the extraction of anthocyanin and polyphenol antioxidants from Roselle. A natural hydrophilic DES constituted of sodium acetate (hydrogen bond acceptor) and formic acid (hydrogen bond donor) designed to evaluate the total phenolic compound (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC), total anthocyanin (TACN), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values of Roselle. Distilled water, 70% ethanol, and 80% methanol used as conventional solvents for comparison. The results indicated that the DES prepared in molarity ratio (SAFAm) was the most efficient. Subsequently, this prominent DES selected for the optimization and the optimum extraction conditions were 1:3.6 molarity ratio, 0% additional water, and 10 mL solvent. TPC, TFC, TACN, FRAP, and DPPH radical scavenging at the optimum point were 233.26 mg GAE/g, 10.14 mg ECE/g, 10.62 mg D3S/g, 493.45 mmol ISE/g, and 343.41 mmol TE/g, respectively. The stability tests showed that anthocyanins were more stable in SAFAm. These findings revealed that SAFAm is an effective green solvent for the extraction of polyphenols from various plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: roselle; deep eutectic solvent; anthocyanin; antioxidant; response surface methodology; green chemistry roselle; deep eutectic solvent; anthocyanin; antioxidant; response surface methodology; green chemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zannou, O.; Koca, I.; Aldawoud, T.M.S.; Galanakis, C.M. Recovery and Stabilization of Anthocyanins and Phenolic Antioxidants of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) with Hydrophilic Deep Eutectic Solvents. Molecules 2020, 25, 3715.

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