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Open AccessArticle

A Combined Mechanochemical and Calcination Route to Mixed Cobalt Oxides for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitrophenols

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, 4111 Libra Drive, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
2
Renewable Energy and Chemical Transformations Cluster, University of Central Florida, 4353 Scorpius Street, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
3
National Center for Forensic Science, University of Central Florida, 12354 Research Parkway #225, Orlando, FL 32826, USA
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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
5
CREOL—The College of Optics & Photonics, Building 53, University of Central Florida, 4304 Scorpius Street, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
6
NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ali Nazemi
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010089
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 14 December 2019 / Accepted: 15 December 2019 / Published: 25 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Synthesis of Functional Nanomaterials)
Para-, or 4-nitrophenol, and related nitroaromatics are broadly used compounds in industrial processes and as a result are among the most common anthropogenic pollutants in aqueous industrial effluent; this requires development of practical remediation strategies. Their catalytic reduction to the less toxic and synthetically desirable aminophenols is one strategy. However, to date, the majority of work focuses on catalysts based on precisely tailored, and often noble metal-based nanoparticles. The cost of such systems hampers practical, larger scale application. We report a facile route to bulk cobalt oxide-based materials, via a combined mechanochemical and calcination approach. Vibratory ball milling of CoCl2(H2O)6 with KOH, and subsequent calcination afforded three cobalt oxide-based materials with different combinations of CoO(OH), Co(OH)2, and Co3O4 with different crystallite domains/sizes and surface areas; [email protected], [email protected] and [email protected] ([email protected]###; # = calcination temp). All three prove active for the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol and related aminonitrophenols. In the case of 4-nitrophenol, [email protected] proved to be the most active catalyst, therein its retention of activity over prolonged exposure to air, moisture, and reducing environments, and applicability in flow processes is demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitroaromatics; catalytic reduction; metal oxide catalysis; waste valorization; water chemistry; nanocatalysis nitroaromatics; catalytic reduction; metal oxide catalysis; waste valorization; water chemistry; nanocatalysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shultz, L.R.; McCullough, B.; Newsome, W.J.; Ali, H.; Shaw, T.E.; Davis, K.O.; Uribe-Romo, F.J.; Baudelet, M.; Jurca, T. A Combined Mechanochemical and Calcination Route to Mixed Cobalt Oxides for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitrophenols. Molecules 2020, 25, 89.

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