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Open AccessArticle

Ketoprofen-Based Ionic Liquids: Synthesis and Interactions with Bovine Serum Albumin

1
Department of Chemical Organic Technology and Polymeric Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Piastów Ave. 42, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland
2
Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str. Bl. 9, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010090
Received: 25 November 2019 / Revised: 19 December 2019 / Accepted: 23 December 2019 / Published: 25 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids, from Their Synthesis to Their Applications)
The development of ionic liquids based on active pharmaceutical ingredients (API-ILs) is a possible solution to some of the problems of solid and/or hydrophobic drugs such as low solubility and bioavailability, polymorphism and an alternative route of administration could be suggested as compared to the classical drug. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis and detailed characterization of a series of ILs containing a cation amino acid esters and anion ketoprofen (KETO-ILs). The affinity and the binding mode of the KETO-ILs to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were assessed using fluorescence spectroscopy. All compounds bind in a distance not longer than 6.14 nm to the BSA fluorophores. The estimated binding constants (KA) are in order of 105 L mol−1, which is indicative of strong drug or IL-BSA interactions. With respect to the ketoprofen-BSA system, a stronger affinity of the ILs containing l-LeuOEt, l-ValOBu, and l-ValOEt cation towards BSA is clearly seen. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments have shown that all studied compounds induced a rearrangement of the protein molecule upon binding, which is consistent with the suggested static mechanism of BSA fluorescence quenching and formation of complexes between BSA and the drugs. All tested compounds were safe for macrophages. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketoprofen; ionic liquids; bovine serum albumin; binding constants; secondary structure ketoprofen; ionic liquids; bovine serum albumin; binding constants; secondary structure
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Ossowicz, P.; Kardaleva, P.; Guncheva, M.; Klebeko, J.; Świątek, E.; Janus, E.; Yancheva, D.; Angelov, I. Ketoprofen-Based Ionic Liquids: Synthesis and Interactions with Bovine Serum Albumin. Molecules 2020, 25, 90.

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