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Phenolic Profile and Bioactive Properties of Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A.DC.: An In Vitro Comparative Study between Leaves, Stems, and Flowers

1
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
2
Laboratoire de Recherche “Bioressources”: Biologie Intégrative & Valorisation (BIOLIVAL) LR14ES06, Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie de Monastir, Avenue Tahar Hadded, BP 74,5000, Université de Monastir, Monastir 5000, Tunisia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091696
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

The present work aimed to characterize leaves, stems, and flowers of Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A.DC., by performing an analysis of the phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, correlating them with bioactive properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities. Thirty polyphenols were identified in the hydroethanolic extract, including phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, and flavonol glycosides derivatives (which presented the highest number of identified compounds). However, flavan-3-ols showed the highest concentration in stems (mainly owing to the presence of dimers, trimmers, and tetramers of type B (epi)catechin). Leaves were distinguished by their high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as their bactericidal effect against E. coli, while stems presented a higher cytotoxic activity and bactericidal effect against Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, a high correlation between the studied bioactivities and the presence of phenolic compounds was also verified. The obtained results bring added value to the studied plant species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Carissa macrocarpa; plant aerial parts; phenolic profile; bioactivities; Pearson’s correlation Carissa macrocarpa; plant aerial parts; phenolic profile; bioactivities; Pearson’s correlation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Souilem, F.; Dias, M.I.; Barros, L.; Calhelha, R.C.; Alves, M.J.; Harzallah-Skhiri, F.; Ferreira, I.C. Phenolic Profile and Bioactive Properties of Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A.DC.: An In Vitro Comparative Study between Leaves, Stems, and Flowers. Molecules 2019, 24, 1696.

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