Next Article in Journal
Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Terpenoids from Resina Commiphora
Next Article in Special Issue
Modelling Contaminant Formation during Thermal Processing of Sea Buckthorn Purée
Previous Article in Journal
Importance of Chiral Recognition in Designing Metal-Free Ligands for G-Quadruplex DNA
Previous Article in Special Issue
Chromo-Fluorogenic Detection of Soman and Its Simulant by Thiourea-Based Rhodamine Probe
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081474

Formation of Ethyl Carbamate during the Production Process of Cantonese Soy Sauce

1
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, 47521 Cesena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simone Morais
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 14 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis of Contaminants of Emerging Concern )
  |  
PDF [2612 KB, uploaded 15 April 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The aim of this work was to clarify the formation of ethyl carbamate (EC) and its influence factors throughout the production process of Cantonese soy sauce. The results showed that EC was not detected in the koji-making and early moromi fermentation stages, but started to be generated when pH of the moromi decreased to about 4.9—at the same time, the levels of ethanol, urea and citrulline increased significantly. Most EC was formed during raw soy sauce hot extraction (40.6%) and sterilization (42.9%) stages. The EC content exhibited the highest correlation with ethanol throughout the whole production process (R = 0.97). The simulation soy sauce produced in laboratory led the same conclusion—moreover, the contents of EC, ethanol and citrulline were higher in soy sauce fermented at 30 °C than in soy sauce fermented at 15 °C. Extraction of raw soy sauce by squeezing contributed little to EC formation. Further research showed that citrulline and ethanol led to significant increases in EC levels in raw soy sauce upon heating. These results indicate that ethanol and citrulline are two critical precursors of EC and that EC is mainly formed during the heat treatment stage of soy sauce. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethyl carbamate; soy sauce; precursor; ethanol; accumulation stage ethyl carbamate; soy sauce; precursor; ethanol; accumulation stage
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, K.; Siroli, L.; Patrignani, F.; Sun, Y.; Lanciotti, R.; Xu, Z. Formation of Ethyl Carbamate during the Production Process of Cantonese Soy Sauce. Molecules 2019, 24, 1474.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top