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Extracts from Fermented Black Garlic Exhibit a Hepatoprotective Effect on Acute Hepatic Injury

1
Department of Medicinal Botanicals and Health Applications, Da-Yeh University, Chang-Hua 51591, Taiwan
2
College of Biotechnology and Bioresources, Da-Yeh University, Chang-Hua 51591, Taiwan
3
Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Food Science Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
5
Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
6
School of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
7
Global Research and Industry Alliance Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
8
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
9
Menglinbeier Clinic, Taichung 407, Taiwan
10
Department of Food science and biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
11
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Chi-Fai Chau
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061112
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract

The mechanism of hepatoprotective compounds is usually related to its antioxidant or anti-inflammatory effects. Black garlic is produced from garlic by heat treatment and its anti-inflammatory activity has been previously reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of five different extracts of black garlic against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatic injury (AHI). In this study, mice in the control, CCl4, silymarin, and black garlic groups were orally administered distilled water, silymarin, and different fraction extracts of black garlic, respectively, after CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally to induce AHI. The results revealed that the n-butanol layer extract (BA) and water layer extract (WS) demonstrated a hepatoprotective effect by reducing the levels of alanine aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). Furthermore, the BA and WS fractions of black garlic extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and the interleukin-1 (IL-1β) level in liver. It was concluded that black garlic exhibited significant protective effects on CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury. View Full-Text
Keywords: black garlic; acute hepatic injury; carbon tetrachloride; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory black garlic; acute hepatic injury; carbon tetrachloride; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsai, J.-C.; Chen, Y.-A.; Wu, J.-T.; Cheng, K.-C.; Lai, P.-S.; Liu, K.-F.; Lin, Y.-K.; Huang, Y.-T.; Hsieh, C.-W. Extracts from Fermented Black Garlic Exhibit a Hepatoprotective Effect on Acute Hepatic Injury. Molecules 2019, 24, 1112.

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