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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Structures, Activities and Drug-Likeness of Anti-Infective Xanthone Derivatives Isolated from the Marine Environment: A Review

1
Laboratory of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
2
Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Investigation (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Edifício do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4050-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
3
Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020243
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
Marine organisms represent almost half of total biodiversity and are a very important source of new bioactive substances. Within the varied biological activities found in marine products, their antimicrobial activity is one of the most relevant. Infectious diseases are responsible for high levels of morbidity and mortality and many antimicrobials lose their effectiveness with time due to the development of resistance. These facts justify the high importance of finding new, effective and safe anti-infective agents. Among the variety of biological activities of marine xanthone derivatives, one that must be highlighted is their anti-infective properties. In this work, a literature review of marine xanthones with anti-infective activity, namely antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antiviral, is presented. Their structures, biological activity, sources and the methods used for bioactivity evaluation are described. The xanthone derivatives are grouped in three sets: xanthones, hydroxanthones and glycosylated derivatives. Moreover, molecular descriptors, biophysico-chemical properties, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the chemical space occupied by marine xanthone derivatives is recognized. The chemical space was compared with marketed drugs and framed accordingly to the drug-likeness concept in order to profile the pharmacokinetic of anti-infective marine xanthone derivatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine; xanthones; antimicrobial; physicochemical properties; ADME marine; xanthones; antimicrobial; physicochemical properties; ADME
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MDPI and ACS Style

Loureiro, D.R.P.; Soares, J.X.; Costa, J.C.; Magalhães, Á.F.; Azevedo, C.M.G.; Pinto, M.M.M.; Afonso, C.M.M. Structures, Activities and Drug-Likeness of Anti-Infective Xanthone Derivatives Isolated from the Marine Environment: A Review. Molecules 2019, 24, 243. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020243

AMA Style

Loureiro DRP, Soares JX, Costa JC, Magalhães ÁF, Azevedo CMG, Pinto MMM, Afonso CMM. Structures, Activities and Drug-Likeness of Anti-Infective Xanthone Derivatives Isolated from the Marine Environment: A Review. Molecules. 2019; 24(2):243. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020243

Chicago/Turabian Style

Loureiro, Daniela R.P.; Soares, José X.; Costa, Joana C.; Magalhães, Álvaro F.; Azevedo, Carlos M.G.; Pinto, Madalena M.M.; Afonso, Carlos M.M. 2019. "Structures, Activities and Drug-Likeness of Anti-Infective Xanthone Derivatives Isolated from the Marine Environment: A Review" Molecules 24, no. 2: 243. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020243

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