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Analysis of Chemical Composition and Assessment of Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Meriandra dianthera Growing in Saudi Arabia

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Medicinal Aromatic, and Poisonous Plants Research Center, Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Biology Department, College of Science, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
5
Bioproducts Research Chair, Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
6
Vitiligo Research Chair, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
7
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniela Rigano
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142647
Received: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils as Antimicrobial and Anti-infectious Agents II)
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Abstract

The essential oil of Meriandra dianthera (Konig ex Roxb.) Benth. (Synonym: Meriandra bengalensis, Lamiaceae) collected from Saudi Arabia was studied utilizing GC and GC/MS. Forty four constituents were identified, representing 96.8% of the total oil. The M. dianthera essential oil (MDEO) was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (76.2%). Camphor (54.3%) was the major compound in MDEO followed by 1,8-cineole (12.2%) and camphene (10.4%). Moreover, MDEO was assessed for its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities. MDEO demonstrated an interesting cytotoxic activity against all cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 83.6 to 91.2 μg/mL, especially against MCF-7 cancer cells. Using labeling with annexin VFITC and/or propidium iodide (PI) dyes and flow cytometer analysis, the apoptosis induction was quantitatively confirmed for MCF-7 cells. The MDEO exhibited a considerable antimicrobial activity against all bacterial and fungal strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)-values of 0.07 to 1.25 mg/mL. The most sensitive microbial strain was Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 0.07 mg/mL). Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were determined one time higher than that of MIC’s. Additionally, the MDEO revealed a strong activity for reducing β-carotene bleaching with a total antioxidant value of 72.6% and significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity (78.4%) at the concentration 1000 μg/mL. View Full-Text
Keywords: Meriandra dianthera; Meriandra bengalensis; volatile oil; GC-MS; anticancer; antimicrobial; antioxidative; apoptosis Meriandra dianthera; Meriandra bengalensis; volatile oil; GC-MS; anticancer; antimicrobial; antioxidative; apoptosis
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Mothana, R.A.; Nasr, F.A.; Khaled, J.M.; AL-Zharani, M.; Noman, O.M.; Abutaha, N.; Al-Rehaily, A.J.; Almarfadi, O.M.; Kumar, A.; Kurkcuoglu, M. Analysis of Chemical Composition and Assessment of Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Meriandra dianthera Growing in Saudi Arabia. Molecules 2019, 24, 2647.

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