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Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071541

Phytochemical Composition of the Decoctions of Greek Edible Greens (Chórta) and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Properties

1
Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, 15771 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece
3
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, 41221 Larissa, Greece
4
Phytochemistry and Bioactive Natural Products, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, CMU—Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Geneva, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hermann Stuppner
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derived Natural Products and Age Related Diseases)
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Abstract

Wild or semi-wild edible greens (chórta) are an integral part of the traditional Greek Mediterranean diet due to their nutritional value, containing various phytonutrients beneficial to human health. Water-based decoctions of chórta are widely consumed in Greek alternative medicine as health promoting agents. This study examined the chemical profile of the decoctions of eight edible plants, Cichorium intybus, C. endivia, C. spinosum, Crepis sancta, Sonchus asper, Carthamus lanatus, Centaurea raphanina, and Amaranthus blitum, by UPLC-ESI-HRMS and HRMS/MS analysis, to determine possibly bioactive constituents. The profiles of the plants from the Asteraceae family are dominated by the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoid derivatives, whereas the A. blitum decoction is rich in triterpene saponins. Interestingly, the Centaurea raphanina decoction was found to be extremely rich in flavanones, particularly in the aglycone pinocembrin. Further phytochemical investigation and fractionation of this extract resulted in the isolation and identification of five compounds: phlorin (1), syringin (2), pinocembrin (3), pinocembroside (4), and pinocembrin-7-O-neohesperidoside (5). The extracts were also tested for their antioxidant and differential cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. C. raphanina was found to be differentially toxic against metastatic tumor cells. In conclusion, we found that Greek edible greens are a rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites and their consumption could contribute to the maintenance of overall health. View Full-Text
Keywords: edible greens; chórta; Mediterranean diet; decoction edible greens; chórta; Mediterranean diet; decoction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mikropoulou, E.V.; Vougogiannopoulou, K.; Kalpoutzakis, E.; Sklirou, A.D.; Skaperda, Z.; Houriet, J.; Wolfender, J.-L.; Trougakos, I.P.; Kouretas, D.; Halabalaki, M.; Mitakou, S. Phytochemical Composition of the Decoctions of Greek Edible Greens (Chórta) and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Properties. Molecules 2018, 23, 1541.

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