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Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3200;

Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity, Protective Effect on Human Erythrocytes and Phenolic Compound Identification in Two Varieties of Plum Fruit (Spondias spp.) by UPLC-MS

Departamento de Biotecnología y Ciencias Alimentarias, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, 85000 Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, México
Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo. Av. Río Conchos S/N Parque Industrial, 31570 Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua, México
Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado en Alimentos, Universidad de Sonora. Encinas y Rosales s/n, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora, México
Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Sonora. Bordo Nuevo S/N, 85199 Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, México
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products)
PDF [512 KB, uploaded 4 December 2018]


Plum edible part was used to obtained extracts by during a 4 h maceration process using three different solvents (ethanol, methanol and water) for the determination of total phenols and flavonoids, antioxidant capacity by (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hemolysis inhibition in human blood assays. Subsequently, phenolic compounds were identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS). The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of plum fruit being a good source of phenolic (12–18 mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (2.3–2.5 mg QE/g FW) content in both varieties of plum. Also, the fruits proved a good source of antioxidants as measured by DPPH and ABTS; likewise, plum aqueous extracts showed the highest protective effect on human erythrocytes with 74.34 and 64.62% for yellow and red plum, respectively. A total of 23 bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-MS, including gallic acid, rutin, resorcinol, chlorogenic acid, catechin, and ellagic acid, and the antioxidant capacity can be attributed to these species. The edible part of plum contains compounds of biological interest, suggesting that this fruit has antioxidant potential that can be exploited for various technologies.
Keywords: phenolic compounds; Spondias spp.; UPLC-MS; antioxidant capacity phenolic compounds; Spondias spp.; UPLC-MS; antioxidant capacity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Hernández-Ruiz, K.L.; Ruiz-Cruz, S.; Cira-Chávez, L.A.; Gassos-Ortega, L.E.; Ornelas-Paz, J.J.; Del-Toro-Sánchez, C.L.; Márquez-Ríos, E.; López-Mata, M.A.; Rodríguez-Félix, F. Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity, Protective Effect on Human Erythrocytes and Phenolic Compound Identification in Two Varieties of Plum Fruit (Spondias spp.) by UPLC-MS. Molecules 2018, 23, 3200.

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